Friday, December 27, 2019

Democracy And The Age Of Information Abundance Essay

Democracy in the age of information abundance: The impact of new technologies to our democratic political system Introduction Never before, in the history of time, has our ability to collaborate and communicate on a massive scale been so achievable. (Papay Timby, 2014) With the emergence of new technologies, there are more individuals that can have better access to media and information. Experts believe that to some extent it strengthens democracy as there are more numbers of individuals taking part in any democratic process including the increasing public awareness to monitor political processes. Furthermore, it raises collaborations between the government and the public in solving problems at different levels. Unfortunately, the abundance of information has arguably created radical demand of transparency and potential excessive surveillance that decelerate the government processes and decision-making process as the public sector begin to be too cautious and timid. Before going too far, by new technologies, this essay focuses on new, computer-and-internet based media technologies as the fact that they play an important role in widening and strengthening information access that is significant to democracy (Barber, 2003). There are numbers of these types of technologies including, but not limited to, social media, online surveys, voting and deliberative polling, internet-based focus groups, and online petitions (Keane, 2009). Their emergence is highly supported by variousShow MoreRelatedRick Perry s Decision On The Hpv Vaccine Essay1113 Words   |  5 Pagesmatter. Introduction Throughout the years, democracy has been the system of government in The United States of America. Democracy is a society in which individuals participate in the decision making process of establishments that make decisions or execute actions that affect them. 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Wednesday, December 18, 2019

Applications Utility Concerns in Choosing an Assessment...

Applications: Utility Concerns in Choosing an Assessment Method Randy May works for a small airline based on Nantucket Island, Massachusetts. He recently won two million in the New England Lottery and decided to invest his winnings, ultimately, in a chain of ice cream shops in the Cape Cod area to gain potential future earnings. Figuring he had enough money to open up ice cream shops in both islands of Nantucket and Martha’s Vineyard, as well as two shops in Falmouth and Buzzards Bay, he signed a contract with a local builder and began construction of the shops. After beginning the process of construction, he was faced with the next task of hiring employees to staff the four ice cream shops. Throughout his calculations, he estimated†¦show more content†¦In this particular case, Randy will need to assign the correct numbers to the correct category. For the purposes of this case study, assume T will equal 1 to make the equation represent one year of employment in one of the ice cream shops. For following variables, Nn will equal 5 0 as there will be 50 applicants total selected to be hired, rxy will represent .30 in one equation representing the interview and job performance and in the other equation, it will represent .50 which will represent the work sample predictor and job performance, SDy will be chosen to represent .20, á º s will be .80 because it will be the predictor score of the selected applicants, Na will represent 100, as that is the total number of applicants that submitted applications, and Cy will represent the cost per applicant in the interview and job performance in one equation as 100 and it will represent 150 in the other equation for work sample and jobShow MoreRelatedReport for a Recruitment Selection Process2045 Words   |  9 PagesAdministrative Assistance in their organizations. 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Tuesday, December 10, 2019

Management Science and Systems CHEMS Process

Question: Discuss about the Management Science and Systems for CHEMS Process. Answer: Introduction CHEMS is operating their business in chemical industry where they are producing specialized industrial chemicals for large scale industries. The company is involved in the business to produce chemicals by orders from their customers that differs according to the need of the customers. Three managers in three segments that are associated with the production, administration and accounts manage the operation of the company. Senior manager is involved in the process of administration, production manager is involved with the manufacturing, purchasing and storage and accounts managers associated with the accounts department. Among three managers accounts manager is the decision making authority that make decisions considering the recommendations from senior manager whereas production manager is the most subordinate manager among three. Every recommendations made by the senior manager are based on specific data that provide supports to the accounts manager to pursue his decision. At present , the company finalized an order from customers takes 4 months. However, personnel, operations and problems embedded in the company's structure. There are two main aspects of the company's problems that are identified from the current scenario, one is the order and the production process and second is the decision-making structures and processes. The objective of this report is to discuss and identify the problems in the operational process and decision making structure and find out suitable recommendations to improve them. Summary of the main issues, including the ordering and production process and decision making structure and process currently employed in CHEMS Ltd. Considering the ordering and production of the company, seven problems have been identified that are developing mess among the system those are discussed below in detailed. The first issue is associated with the production manager who is responsible for the production performance however; he has no control over the input materials. Production manager is not able to decide about that input materials that also involves the quality. When raw material suppliers submit their quotation then it goes to the account manager instead of production manager. The system is wrong because accounts manager is not directly involved with the production process and knowledge of the function is also less. In such case, company should change the centralized approach for their goods purchasing and production because it will be better understood by the production as compared to the accounts manager. The second issue of the organization is that the only allow the standard price list from the supplier however; in the time of adjustment, it becomes difficult to compare the price list with the others. The third issue of the organization is functional responsibility of the managers. The current system overload the accounts manager with lot of responsibility and almost every process needs his approval. Therefore over reliance has become the habit of the employees. If some day accounts manager is absent then the whole process of the organization becomes slow or stagnant. The fourth issue of the company is the unstable goods supply from the raw material supplier due to the complication purchase process. CHEMS supply their products to their customer once the order is received. The unstable goods supply is the one of the biggest problem of the company. The fifth issue of the company is the operational expense particularly on staffing. CHEMS The annual cost of 10 staff was as much high as 25000 dollar that easily can be reduced by negotiating properly with them. The high operating cost was affecting the operating capital of the organization. Quality control period is the sixth issue of the organization. The quality control period of the manufacturing process lasts for three weeks, which is too long whereas production time is one week. Therefore long quality control time is one of the hindrances of the process. The seventh issue of the organization is the arrangement of the container for the produced goods to supply. The organization starts the process of arranging the container after production complete whereas they should arrange it before that by scheduling the production in such a way so that they remain in a simultaneous process. Considering the decision making structure of the organization there are five problems that are identified. The first issue of the decision making structure is type of job done in the system. The computer system of the company generates weekly systems that are associated with the overall activity of the whole week. On the other hand, the senior manager of the company also produces a weekly report that is almost similar to the computer system, which is wastage of time and burden to the employees. The second issue is almost similar to the first problem because senior manager of the organization has to submit one hardcopy and one softcopy to the accounts manager therefore it also a wastage of resource. The third issue is inserted among the staff of the organization. In spite of the fact that there is data framework in the organization, the Senior Managers are declined to utilize the database much of the time. Likewise, they more often than not have an unfriendly outlook towards the framework, which causes the issue of data incoherency by condensing information physically. The fourth issue is likewise implanted in the brought together approach and the misallocation of workload. In CHEMS, Chief Accountant needs to favor various reports, which could impact the nature of creation and the absence of bias of the choice. The fifth issue is the quality of the report produced by the senior manager to the accounts manager. Since the job role and the decision making process is not in a structured frame therefore the quality of the report is low. The unorganized report from the senior manager is also a waste of time that involves more time from the accounts manager. An analysis of the two key challenges facing the Senior Managers of CHEM Ltd Does the production reports provided by CHEMS effective in assisting Senior Managers with their decision-making? CHEMS LTD Production report Week to 30 April 20X3 Report date: 19 May 20X3 Production cost per batch Profit for week Manufacturing cost Cost to date Sales value Project A 453.98 2,563.98 10,002.43 777,734.90 1,000,000 B 664.23 655.83 8,444.93 76,339.00 500,000 C 76.34 27,736.90 57,223.94 299,433.93 750,000 D 266.87 17,117.28 38,339.00 89,222.90 350,000 Project A - input mix Cost Stock at 30 April Material X 453 tons 4.53 34 Material Y 65 tons 877.30 233 Material Z 477 tons 500.00 78 Table 1: Computer generated weekly report available to the senior manager (Source: Provided in the scenario) The production reports gave by CHEMS is not viable in helping Senior Managers with their basic leadership. For settling on decision making, Senior Management ought to procure adequate data in steady way from the report gave by CHEMS. In any case, there are 5 components demonstrating that the report is not successful in giving adequate and compact data that could add to the nature of the basic leadership. The primary issue of the long production procedure could be confirmed by the long time break between the report date and the system generated information. In any case, the report must be accessible on the 19 May 20X3, which demonstrates that the report takes over two weeks for submission. The long time could defer the basic leadership and spoil the adequacy of assessing execution, cost assignment, and influence. The second issue is the inconsistent utilization of measures between the production cost and benefits created disarray in contrasting the business execution. Since the second section demonstrates the expense per group while the third segment shows the expense every week, it could not give adequate data recommending the measure of product sold or the aggregate expense of clusters every week. The third issue of the company is the non-existence of the sales unit. The data only represents the total sales value of the company whereas it should have a unit wise data that could help to calculate the return. The fourth issue is about the nonattendance of information on the allotment of material X,Y, and Z on item per batch. This information gave just let us know the aggregate utilization of Material X,Y, and Z for project A, while the data of the allocation per group is not given, which could obstruct the choice on cost allotment and the viability of cost control. The fifth issue of the production is the in consistent unit cost for the selected project. From the cost section, we could not get any data showing whether the reflection of the expense of information blend per unit or per tones. In this way, the data is mistaking for the Senior Manager to settle on correlation and choice. Does CHMES reflects a high level of competency in its provision of information to its Senior Managers and its IS management? The reporting arrangement of CHEMS does not replicate an abnormal state of competency in its procurement of data to its Senior Managers and its IS administration. The inadequacy of the reporting frameworks can be confirmed by the two main considerations. The main reason is the absence of broadened solid data assets that filled reference need for administrator's basic leadership. In CHEMS, just a week by week creation report is given to Senior Manager for basic leadership while different assets, for example, verbal report from Production Managers are not sufficiently formal for reference. Subsequently, Senior Manager can just get data from one source and have no entrance to different assets for crosschecking the precision of every data source. Besides, the week-by-week report is not viable for basic leadership as talked about above. In addition, the data arrangement of CHEMS is not an entirely controlled framework that gathers, sorts out and breaks down the information as indicated by the request, clients and suppliers. Then again, there are few inputs for the data framework administration. Assume that CHEMS Ltd will change its ordering and production process Describe two critical success factors that can be used to judge the success of the change. Any adjustment in an organization can whether carry change or raise cost with no development to an organization. Viability and productivity are the two main considerations that used to assess whether a change that happens in an organization is fruitful or not. In administration's definition, viability signifies, making the best decision. To put at the end of the day, it gauges the extent to which the objectives are come to and the degree to which an issue can be explained. Since adequacy concentrates on the outcome, the technique and the expense is less accentuated. The second component that decides the achievement of a change is proficiency. Effectiveness is a critical foundation in deciding the efficiency of an organization. While viability signifies making the best choice, productivity signifies doing thing right. It quantifies whether an organization can streamline its generation by using the same measure of assets including cash, time and human resource. Explain how time could be saved within the order and production process. Provide a detailed estimate of the new production time from the receipt of order from the customer to the delivery of the finished goods. The existing process of manufacturing within CHEMS involves long 4 months starting from order processing to goods supply that consist 4-stage operation quotation, material ordering, production, and packaging and shipping. A portion of the strategies can be occurred in the meantime to decrease the manufacturing time. In the accompanying, another request and creation procedure will be acquainted with recovery the season of generation. By reducing the manufacturing time, the outcome can be come to while the information can be minimized. In spite of the fact that the cash expense of a more drawn out production process and a shorter manufacturing procedure is the same, the exercise ineffectiveness for other production and the additional compensation spent are the open door expenses of a period devouring production process. Despite the fact that the present production procedure of CHEMS can create the right item to the clients, it is not productive by receiving the sequencing rationale. As talked about already, viability is about making the best choice while productivity is about doing thing right. In this way, a change that could convey productivity to the organization should be done. Keeping in mind the objective to upgrade the efficiency, the 4 months in length production procedure can be compacted under 2 weeks. The main phase of the order and manufacturing procedure is estimate. Really, the assignments of drafting estimate and information prerequisite is not important to take more than one month. In addition, these two activities are not trouble with each other, which implies that they can be occurred in the meantime. Moreover, an underlying info prerequisite can be accessible in no less than 2 days. However, the estimate draft and the information necessity rundown can be completed in the meantime in 2 days. The second phase of the order and estimate procedure is material requesting. As of now, the organization first conveys value enquiries to three suppliers then sit tight for the suppliers to react with the firm quote. Arrangement must be completed after the accounts supporting the estimate. To accelerate the basic leadership, the arrangement can be completed following two days of conveying the value enquiries. Once the most reduced quote is affirmed after the transaction, the Accountant can straightforwardly support the suppliers that offer the least quote. The one-month material requesting procedure can really be wrap up in 16 days. The third phase of the procedure is the manufacturing, which incorporates item production and quality control. Since quality control must be done after the manufacturing, the methods of this stage need to taken in consecutive request. Be that as it may, one of the methodology, requesting particular holders can happen along with the quality control process subsequent to these two stages are not conflict with others. Request specific compartments and quality control ought to wrap up at the same date. Thus, the CHEMS can arrange specific messenger soon after finishing the past methodology. The new procedure that permits two non-clashing systems happen in the meantime permits the 4 months procedure to be compressed within 2 months Describe how different information system (IS) and decision support system (DSS) may be developed for use within CHEMS including how management science models and software tools might be used as a component for decision making and how different database, information and models interface to form an IS or DSS. The high level of information system expected that a company is operated at a higher level, which is confidential IS (information system) in various level which is used by the users in various seniorities. The result of a lower level will be obtained as the input of the top level for data processing and making decisions or decision-making. Moreover coming back to the case of CHEMS, the superior manager did not manage upper level of quality report for the executive level. This issue may be traced back to the sources of gathering data or information to manage the report. Presently, the superior obtain data or information from the three key sources, which are the oral reports from the Operation or Production managers who develop the chemicals, technical papers that superior managers bought by self and the data received from every week production gathering or meeting. Due to insufficient observation in the data or information input, the result is not valid for assisting the right decisio n-making. To enhance the result manage by the Superior managers for assisting the senior accountants decision-making; a device or system that can be observed the output and input of the data should be obtained. There are four levels of information system is been defined in the below figure. Figure 1: Four levels of Information system (Source: Anderson et al. 2015) DSS means Decision Supporting Systems which involves or have three key compoenents which are mentioned below. 1. MBMS (Model-Base Management System) 2. DBMS (Database Management System) 3. DGMS (Dialog Generation Management System) or User-Interface Figure 2: Major Components of DSS (Source: Power, Sharda and Burstein 2015) There three key components combined altogether to provide a simplified, ease to understand, a systematic data or information for the superior managers to make the right decision. The database management system is basically the DB (database) that holds a huge quality of information or data in the decision supporting system. To make the huge meaningful data or information, the model-base management system functions to change the unstructured and unorganized data into an easy or understand information while the users can have effective information and recommendation from a user effective and friendly interface. Other than the inner operation system, the decision supporting system also access data or information from other computer-based networks (extranets, intranet, internet) and system to improve its modeling capacity and database as shown in the below figure. The huge quantity of information or data stored in the data management is changed to organized information or data which will be transferred to the knowledge based inner system. Simplified information or data that gives enough information to the users will be showcased on the user interface. Figure 3: Conceptual Block diagram of Decision supporting system (Source: Power, Sharda and Burstein 2015) The DSS refers to a computer-based system which allows the customers or users to make decision and perception in an effective manner. It can be implemented in the sections or areas that needed difficult decision-making such as military and medical fields. The chemical business or company CHEMS that included generally difficult decision making and the main issues of IS (information system) takes the position of the superior managers level. Therefore, DSS (Decision Supporting Systems) will be a correct and suitable structure or model among the information systems system which should be implemented by the chemical company CHEMS. User-friendly systems mix the functionality of different management science models and databases and provide the permission to the users to ask queries and get the required answer from the system. When we compare the old or traditional IS (information system) access, Decision supporting systems can reach its faults in obtaining and recover data or information. Formulate and critically evaluate the possible decisions/outcome using suitable management science models and software tools, and advise the company accordingly on a suitable course of action Expected monetary value (EMV) EMV (alternative i) = (Payoff of first outcome) X (Probability of first outcome) + (Payoff of second outcome) X (Probability of second outcome) + + (Payoff of last outcome) X (Probability of last outcome) Expected Value of Perfect Information (EVPI) EVPI indicates the amount that people are willing to pay for extra information/ perfect information EVPI = EVwPI Maximum EMV EVwPI indicates the average return if decision is made under the situation of acquiring perfect information in long run EVwPI = (Best payoff of first outcome) X (Probability of first outcome) + (Best Payoff of second outcome) X (Probability of second outcome) + + (Best payoff of last outcome) X (Probability of last outcome) Based on the data and information, we can get the following results: Let System I is successful: EMV = [(1m x 10 2.5m) x 55%] + (-2.5m x 45%) = $ 3 million Let System I fails but System II succeeds: EMV = [(1m x 10 (2.5m + 1m) x 75%) + [-2.5m + (-1m) x 25%] = $4 million Let either one system succeeds: EMV = -2.5m + (-1m) = $-3.5 million Conclusion At present, CHEMS has various issues in its stream of data and the operation. The present method for working the business costs additional costs to the organization. What's more, the exercise in futility could likewise be viewed as an open door. Besides, the lack in the data chain results in the low quality reports delivered by the Senior Managers. The low quality report could not fill the reference need for basic leadership. The issues of CHEMS are implanted in its operation, assets designation, and direction towards the faculty. The organization ought to lessen the repetition of workload. CHEMS ought to introduce a progressed and easy to use DSS for the producing brilliant reports. Likewise, it does not important to create an additional report physically by the Senior Managers. Senior Mangers ought to be prepared to utilize the framework and screen the information info and yield as opposed to delivering an excess report. The employment designation ought to be reassigned. Senior Acc ountant ought to just concentrate on the assignment identified with the budgetary execution of the organization. Different assignments, for example, the information blending of the generation, should be in control by the Production Managers. The organization ought to enhance the trade among divisions and streamline the elements of every gathering by better data trade and occupation portion. Besides, the Production Managers ought to be outfitted with fundamental money related learning and be enabled the privilege to control the info blend. The manufacturing to supply period has to to be abbreviated from 4 months to under 2 months. The organization should not embrace the successive preparing as at present connected. Some farm duties that are not struggle with each other could be done in the same time to improve the organization efficiency. This issue is particularly clear in the time of requesting unique couriers with specialized container. CHEMS can really decrease the requesting time frame. Likewise, Quality Control and the logistics plan can really be done in the same time. The organization must shrink the expense on employing the arrangement staff. Rather than enlisting 10 individuals, 8 individuals can be sufficient for taking care of the whole process. Moreover, lessening the HR in this part can likewise decrease the extra expense of the organization. Since Information System and information exchange assume imperative part in basic leadership, an organization, for example, CHEMS that includes complex basic leaders hip must play uncommon consideration. Simple operational and structural strategy of the organization will enhance the organizational performance by arranging efficiency with effectiveness. Reference List Anderson, D.R., Sweeney, D.J., Williams, T.A., Camm, J.D. and Cochran, J.J., 2015.An introduction to management science: quantitative approaches to decision making. Cengage learning. Anderson, D.R., Sweeney, D.J., Williams, T.A., Camm, J.D. and Cochran, J.J., 2015.An introduction to management science: quantitative approaches to decision making. Cengage learning. Baskerville, R.L. and Wood-Harper, A.T., 2016. A critical perspective on action research as a method for information systems research. InEnacting Research Methods in Information Systems: Volume 2(pp. 169-190). Springer International Publishing. Chai, J., Liu, J.N. and Ngai, E.W., 2013. Application of decision-making techniques in supplier selection: A systematic review of literature.Expert Systems with Applications,40(10), pp.3872-3885. Clemen, R.T. and Reilly, T., 2013.Making hard decisions with DecisionTools. Cengage Learning. Daniel J. Power, P. (2016).Ask Dan! about DSS - What is analytical processing?. [online] Dssresources.com. Available at: https://dssresources.com/faq/index.php?action=artikelid=201 [Accessed 26 Jun. 2016]. Flood, R.L. and Carson, E., 2013.Dealing with complexity: an introduction to the theory and application of systems science. Springer Science Business Media. Galliers, R.D. and Leidner, D.E., 2014.Strategic information management: challenges and strategies in managing information systems. Routledge. Govindan, K., Rajendran, S., Sarkis, J. and Murugesan, P., 2015. Multi criteria decision making approaches for green supplier evaluation and selection: a literature review.Journal of Cleaner Production,98, pp.66-83. Hendren, C.O., Lowry, M., Grieger, K.D., Money, E.S., Johnston, J.M., Wiesner, M.R. and Beaulieu, S.M., 2013. Modeling approaches for characterizing and evaluating environmental exposure to engineered nanomaterials in support of risk-based decision making.Environmental science technology,47(3), pp.1190-1205. Kerzner, H.R., 2013.Project management: a systems approach to planning, scheduling, and controlling. John Wiley Sons. Koch, C. and Friis, O., 2015. Operations strategy development in project based productiona political process perspective.Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management,26(4), pp.501-514. Melouk, S.H., Freeman, N.K., Miller, D. and Dunning, M., 2013. Simulation optimization-based decision support tool for steel manufacturing.International Journal of Production Economics,141(1), pp.269-276. Mohammadi, S., Soleymani, S. and Mozafari, B., 2014. Scenario-based stochastic operation management of microgrid including wind, photovoltaic, micro-turbine, fuel cell and energy storage devices.International Journal of Electrical Power Energy Systems,54, pp.525-535. Pettigrew, A., 2013.The Awakening Giant (Routledge Revivals): Continuity and Change in Imperial Chemical Industries. Routledge. Power, D.J., Sharda, R. and Burstein, F., 2015.Decision support systems. John Wiley Sons, Ltd. Stadtler, H., 2015. Supply chain management: An overview. InSupply chain management and advanced planning(pp. 3-28). Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Ward, J. and Peppard, J., 2016.The Strategic Management of Information Systems: Building a Digital Strategy. John Wiley Sons. Willcocks, L., 2013.Information management: the evaluation of information systems investments. Springer. Yoo, Y., 2013. The tables have turned: how can the information systems field contribute to technology and innovation management research?.Journal of the Association for Information Systems,14(5), p.227.

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

Meyer’s The Seven-Per-Cent Solution free essay sample

Father of detective work, Sherlock Holmes and father of psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud, can be compared and contrasted in Nicholas Meyer’s The Seven-Per-Cent Solution. Sherlock Holmes can be identified as one of the most brilliant fictional characters of the 19th century period. As a â€Å"consulting detective†, he uses his extraordinary abilities and logical reasoning to solve some of the most difficult cases. Equally as brilliant in his field, Sigmund Freud is identified in the novel as a neurologist that extensively studies the human mind and behavior. Both Sherlock Holmes and Sigmund Freud share many similarities in Meyer’s novel. One obvious parallel is each character’s remarkable abilities in their profession. In chapter IV Holmes does an impressive analysis of the Dr. Freud and surprises everyone after using clues to identify many of the Dr. ’s personal and professional characteristics. Freud’s intelligence is likewise showcased when he is able to reveal the underlying cause of Holmes’ addiction to cocaine in the last paragraph of the story. We will write a custom essay sample on Meyer’s The Seven-Per-Cent Solution or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Another similarity is that both characters are loners. Other than Dr. Watson, Holmes does not trust or allow others in his life. As for Dr. Freud, he is excluded from society and colleagues due to his radical ideas and methods of work. Both characters also happen to smoke Tobacco. For Holmes it was â€Å"huge amounts of shag†, during his cases whereas Freud would indulge in cigars. Although both Holmes and Freud shared many similarities, they also have many differences. A prominent difference derives from the antagonist, Cocaine. In the novel, Holmes is clearly addicted to cocaine when Meyer writes, â€Å"but as for help, you must put it out of your minds, all of you. I am in the grip of this devilish malady and it will consume me! † As for Dr. Freud, all though he was addicted at one point, he is the one that discovered the drug and was able to break free from its control. Another difference is that Holmes is not married and Freud is. Examples of this can be found when the author makes it clear that Holmes has no interest to be married due to death of his mother stemming from her betrayal. As for Freud, he can be portrayed as being happily married when reading, â€Å"Dr. Freud seized his wife round waist and began to waltz her about the dining-room†¦Ã¢â‚¬  One more difference is the plain fact that Holmes is a detective and Freud is a psychiatrist. Although they may use similar techniques, their professions differ in many ways. Furthermore, Sherlock Holmes and Sigmund Freud share many similarities in the methods they use professionally. Both characters involve cocaine in their careers. For Holmes, he used it when a case was not interesting enough, and for Freud cocaine was â€Å"more or less a sideline and not directly related to his present researches. † Each character is also very detail oriented in the way they execute their work. Holmes pays attention to very subtle clues to gather information, whereas Freud pays close attention to his patient’s reactions and behavior. Lastly, they both use education immensely in their field of work. For the detective, he relies on physics and chemistry when analyzing his clues, and for the psychiatrist, he involves neurology along with other sciences in his studies. Equally, Holmes and Dr. Freud also share many differences in their professional methods. A visible difference is that Sherlock uses a magnifying glass when working and Sigmund relies greatly on his stop watch when preforming on patients. An example is provided with Freud stops Holmes’ compulsion temporarily when using the stop watch to hypnotize him. Unlike Holmes who relies on investigating outdoors for much of his work, Freud mainly works indoors at his study. This is evident when Holmes does his analysis on Freud and reveals much of the time and dedication he spends in his study. Lastly, another professional difference between them is that Sherlock operates with a partner, Dr. Watson, whereas Sigmund works alone. In the end, Sherlock Holmes and Sigmund Freud have many parallels and differences both individually and professionally in Nicholas Meyer’s The Seven-Per-Cent Solution.

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

E Coli essays

E Coli essays Canada's E. Coli Epidemic Claims Fifth Victim 1:44 p.m. ET (1744 GMT) May 26, 2000 WALKERTON, Ontario (Reuters) - A fifth person died on Thursday in what may be Canada's biggest E. coli epidemic, as police and health officials were set to decide whether to launch a criminal investigation into the outbreak. Dr. Murray McQuigge, the area's chief medical officer, said the outbreak in the mainly agricultural community of Walkerton, Ontario, could have been prevented, and accused the local Public Utilities Commission (PUC) of ignoring the results of its own tests on Thursday, May 18, which he said established the town's water was unsafe. He said 10 people, including four children, remained in a critical condition, struck down by bacteria in the town's water system. An infant and three adults died from E. coli complications on Wednesday. At least 500 people have been infected in Walkerton, a town of 5,000 people about two hours drive northwest of Toronto. Dr. James Cairns, deputy chief cor oner for the province of Ontario, said his department wants an inquest into the deaths. ''We are concerned about public safety,'' he said. "We want to know how the contamination occurred, how it was managed and how people died.'' It is believed the water may have been contaminated by manure washed into the system by recent heavy rains. "There may well be more people who will die. I think we could have prevented all these deaths,'' McQuigge told a news conference, adding that new cases could emerge as late as Monday as the bacteria can have an incubation period of up to 10 days before symptoms appear. McQuigge said he would meet with health and provincial police officials on Friday to try to decide where blame for deaths is to be laid. "There is probably going to be a criminal investigation,'' he said. Walkerton residents were outraged as news spread that it is possible that the tragedy could have been prevented. A local radio chat show host ranted: "What do...

Saturday, November 23, 2019

Consummate Does Not Mean Commensurate

Consummate Does Not Mean Commensurate Consummate Does Not Mean Commensurate Consummate Does Not Mean Commensurate By Maeve Maddox The following comment by a professional journalist set me wondering if I had the wrong idea about the meaning of the adjective consummate: Bernie Sanders is talking real issues. The pundits that are giving Bernie Sanders a bit of coverage, though not consummate to the crowds he is attracting, are noting the authenticity of his prose. The adjective consummate [kun-SUM-it] and the verb consummate [KAHN-suh-mate], come from Latin words having to do with completion. The adjective derives from classical Latin consummÄ tus, â€Å"lacking nothing, complete, perfect.† The verb is from classical Latin consummÄ t-, past participial stem of consummÄ re, â€Å"to add up, make up, to bring to an end, finish off, to complete, finish, to achieve, accomplish, to perfect.† A â€Å"consummate liar† is one who is extremely accomplished in the telling of falsehoods. â€Å"To consummate a marriage† is to complete it with sexual union. â€Å"To consummate a business deal† is to complete such arrangements as signing contracts and transferring deeds. Try as I may, I cannot stretch any of these meanings to fit the context of the quotation given above. An adjective that would fit the context is commensurate [kuh-MEN-suh-rit or kuh-MEN-shuur-it], a word that comes from Latin commensuratus: com (together) + mensurare (to measure). The writer’s meaning is that the coverage of the speaker is not in proportion to the size of the crowds he attracts. The coverage and the crowds â€Å"do not measure up,† that is, the coverage â€Å"is not commensurate† with the crowds. A web search indicates that the error is not unique to the person who wrote the example that prompted this post: INCORRECT: Your high turnover rates are due to the fact that the amount of work demanded is not consummate to the pay offered.   CORRECT : Your high turnover rates are due to the fact that the amount of work demanded is not commensurate with the pay offered.   INCORRECT: The point Waddle was trying to make was Beckham’s ability was not consummate to his fame. CORRECT : The point Waddle was trying to make was Beckham’s ability was not commensurate with his fame. INCORRECT: The amount of money being run by on-the-ground event-driven managers in Europe is not consummate to the size of the market. CORRECT : The amount of money being run by on-the-ground event-driven managers in Europe is not commensurate with the size of the market. INCORRECT: AGL [Australian energy provider]cautions against proposals that will result in a significant cost imposition on ACT electricity consumers that is not consummate to the benefits provided. CORRECT : AGL [Australian energy provider]cautions against proposals that will result in a significant cost imposition on ACT electricity consumers that is not commensurate with the benefits provided. Used as an adjective, consummate means â€Å"complete† or â€Å"perfect.† It is usually followed by the noun it qualifies: â€Å"consummate actor,† â€Å"consummate politician,† etc. The adjective commensurate, â€Å"corresponding in size, extent, amount, or degree,† is conventionally followed by with (not to). Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Misused Words category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Useful Stock Phrases for Your Business Emails"Wracking" or "Racking" Your Brain?â€Å"Least,† â€Å"Less,† â€Å"More,† and â€Å"Most†

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Warfare about Product Life Cycle Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 4250 words

Warfare about Product Life Cycle - Essay Example Meaning and Concept of marketing Warfare The term ‘Warfare’ is often used within the marketing, which can also be reflected in the different crucial strategies of marketing. The literary meaning of Warfare is related with the strategies and tactics used by armed forces at the time of war for the purpose of getting victory over its enemies. The term warfare represents some of the crucial and aggressive strategies implied for the purpose of countering some crucial competition provided by the competitors and enemies at the time of war. In direction to this, the disposition of warfare can also be aligned with the marketing activities undertaken by the business organization (Roney 2004). The implication of different crucial Wartime strategies and tactics in the marketing for the purpose of countering some crucial and intensive competition provided by competitors is known as marketing warfare. Marketing Warfare includes different strategies and tactics implied by the originati on for the purpose of establishing compatibility within business and warfare. Moreover, it also opens a window for the effective application of different principles of military strategy in the business situations, so that an effective solution of intensive competition prevailing within the market place. As in contemporary scenario, the nature and disposition of business environment has been changed quite significantly. Due to heavy competition, market place have become a battle field in which, different competitors are fighting for saving their existence in this tough business environment (Orcullo 2008). In context to this, for the purpose of winning this battle, like war, business organizations are required to... This paper tresses that Product Life Cycle is one of the major concepts in the field of marketing, which will be quite helpful for the business organization in formulating some of the crucial strategic objective. In direction to this, the paper has shaded some of the crucial lights over marketing warfare regarding different stages of product development. On the basis of the in-depth review of different findings, it can be concluded that product life cycle of a product reveals different stage right from its introduction to its decline. In different stages there are different conditions and situations can be faced by the business organization. For the purpose of being successful within the existing market place, it becomes quire essential for the management of the organization to undertake some of the crucial strategic steps in the context of addressing different type of external environmental problems and issues. This report makes a conclusion that there is different warfare marketing strategies associated with the different stages of product life cycle. In relation to this, such different warfare allows the organization to have long term success and sustainability within existing market place. For a business organization it is quite essential to understand and elaborate such crucial strategic measures so that desired success can be attained in the most effective manner. Right selection of strategies at the right time of time is the key of success for the organization and above discussed warfare about PLC allows the organizations to do so effectively and efficiently.

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

GED 132 - US Govt-unit 1 question #3 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

GED 132 - US Govt-unit 1 question #3 - Essay Example The greatest contribution of this era in changing the role of the government vis-Ã  -vis the people of America was the New Deal. This was introduced by the then president of the United States of America, Franklin Roosevelt. The New Deal led to a lot of new legislations that helped get the people back on their feet after the stock market crash of 1929 that had spiraled into the Great Depression. This included, during the first hundred days of the year 1933, the Federal Emergency Relief Administration, a program that was supposed to enable unemployed people to receive a certain amount of money that would help them through the lean period that the Great Depression gave rise to. The period following this was one of great productivity as the government set people to work on many projects of infrastructure improvement that led to the creation of more jobs in a chain reaction that further boosted the process of recovery (Government by the People). The providing of jobs to people who were u nemployed also helped dispel the myth that poverty was an essential result of idleness and laziness. As a result of the New Deal, poverty came to be recognized as an effect of governmental policies and greater macroeconomic pressures. Another important contribution of the Great Depression was the creation of a social security net that would cover sections of the populations that had been marginalized and had been undergoing great hardships during the Great Depression. This covered the unemployed, the aging and the disabled. Through the years, this program has been expanded to include the survivors of the beneficiaries who were dependants but has essentially catered to the needs of the helpless (Government by the People). The era following the Great Depression helped create a framework whereby the people who occupied the margins of the society owing to their cultural and economic deprivations had opportunities to

Sunday, November 17, 2019

By Using the Structural Functionalist Approach Essay Example for Free

By Using the Structural Functionalist Approach Essay Rule by the people is what a democracy is made of, this might be achieved by having the party in power elected into office into office by the majority, the term democracy and the practice itself is diverse in each country but it has similar features which characterize all forms. This essay explains the impact or contributions of political parties in a Liberal Democracy using the Structural functionalist Approach. It will also converse the important roles that these political parties play in every political structure, specifically in Zambia. To start with, it will explain what the terms Liberal, Liberal Democracy and Political Parties are; it will also explain the Structural functionalist Approach. Thereafter, the works and critiques of having Political parties will later be discussed. According to Emerson (1920), Liberal is that mind or attitude which wills to understand and respect other people`s behavior, opinions it implies vigorous convictions, tolerance for the opinions of others and a persistent desire for sound progress, Democracy is Rule by the people, especially as a form of government; either directly, as in Ancient Greece, or through elected representatives as in many modern societies (representative democracy). Franà §ois (1998). Therefore Liberal Democracy refers to a broad array of related ideas and theories of government that consider individual liberty to be the most important political goal. Partridge, 1866). A political party According to Schlesinger (1992) is a group organized to gain control of government in the name of the group by winning election to public office. The Structural functionalist Approach is an approach that studies, analyses and views structures and systems in any social setting with regards to the role or functions they play in the development of any society. A political party being a structure in a political system has a vital role or function it plays in society. A liberal democracy may take various constitutional forms: it

Friday, November 15, 2019

Chaucers Canterbury Tales - Comparing the Millers Tale and the Reeves Tale :: comparison compare contrast essays

Comparing the Miller's Tale and the Reeve's Tale  Ã‚      In the conclusion between the Miller's Tale and the Reeve's Tale, the Reeve's Tale is far more insulting and malicious and convincingly closer to the true definition of quiting, then the Miller's Tale. The Reeve's Tale defines what trickery and evildoing and cuckolding is. The Miller's Tale is more of a tale dealing with a form of black 'humor and slapstick comedy, rather than a succession of put-downs which occurred in the Reeve's Tale.   Ã‚  Ã‚   In the Miller's Tale, we see many insults directed towards bow ignorant the man was in choosing the right wife for marriage. He picks out an eighteen year old bombshell, named Allison and John, the carpenter, who marries her says:   Ã‚  Ã‚   This carpenter had married a new wife Not long before, and loved her more than life. She was a girl of eighteen years of age. Jealous he was and kept her in the cage, For he was old and she was wild and young; He thought himself quite likely to be stung.   Not only are their ages apart, but they share no similarities in their lifestyles, pointing to the fact that he is a dimwitted fool. (MiLT 89)   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The other quiting of the Reeve in the Miller's Tale is when, once   again, the carpenter is portrayed as a dullard by being totally oblivious to the situation; Allison, his wife, and a man named Nicholas, a man known locally for making love in secret, (which was his talent), are trying to have sexual laissons behind John's back. (MiLT 91). They get John to believe that a great flood, worse than Noah's is coming, and will destroy all of them. This fool by believeing this tale and following them with the preparations protects himself, even though no flood of any sort arises. This is the ultimat act of stupidity! The Reeve's Tale about the Miller is a perfect example of evil and trickery at it's best. The part being that in the end, the trickster becomes tricked over and over againt but the tables turn and the Miller is the real loser having lost his stolen flour and to add insult to injury, he finds out that his wife and daughter have been cuckolded especially after all the jargon about the following:   Ã‚  Ã‚   In order to have Simpkins his relation, The nuns had given her an education.

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Evaluating the Historical Capital Budgeting Method Essay

Currently AES employs Project Finance Framework. Project finance tends to be used in projects with tangible assets with predictable cash flows in which construction and operating targets can be easily established through explicit contract. The key to AES projects financing lies with the precise forecasting of cash flows. In effect, the possibility of estimating cash flows with an acceptable level of uncertainty allows for allocation of risks among various interested parties. The ensuing certainty in cash flows allows for high level of leverage and enables project assets to be separated from the parent company. Let us now take a closer look at the pros and cons of the Capital Budgeting System currently in place. Principal Advantages Non-Recourse The separation of the parent company is structured through the creation of a Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV). This SPV is the formal borrower under all loan documents so that in event of default or bankruptcy AES is not directly responsible before financial creditors. Instead, their legal claims are against the SPV assets. Maximize Leverage Currently AES seeks to finance the cost of development and construction of the project on highly leveraged basis. High leveraged in non-recourse project financing permits AES to put less in capital to put at risk permits AES to finance the project without diluting its equity investment in the project. Off-Balance Sheet Treatment AES may not be required to report any of the project debt on its balance sheet because such debt is non-recourse. Off balance sheet treatment can have the added practical benefit of helping the AES comply with covenants and restriction relating to borrowing funds contained in loan agreements to which AES is also a party. Agency Cost The agency costs of free cash flow are reduced. Management incentives are to project performance. Most importantly close monitoring by investors is facilitated. Multilateral Financial Institutions One of the four constituents that have contractual arrangement with the SPV in a typical project are the banks (an integral part group of financiers that include share holders, insurers, equipment manufacturers, export credit agencies and funds). Among these banks there are multilateral financial institutions (like IFC, CAF and etc). Presence of these institutions as financiers helps in raising capital from these institutes at lower cost and secondly it is also read as a positive sign by commercial banks. Drawbacks Projects V/S Division The company is not only expanding its geographical boundaries, but it is also diversifying its business through backward and forward integration. The current financial model does not provide the AES with the big picture, which now constitutes more number of variables that are being influenced by multiple factors due to the increase in depth and breadth of the organization. Complexity Financing of projects requires involvement of a number of parties. They can be quite complex and can be expensive to arrange. Secondly it demands greater amount of management time. Macroeconomic Risk The current methodology employed by AES for capital budgeting does not take into account the exchange rate risk. This risk will be of higher magnitude in the developing countries because of their unstable monetary and fiscal policies[2]. As we have seen that fluctuation in exchange rate has greatly hurt the AES business and they were unable to mitigate this risk as they haven’t anticipated it. This risk becomes important when the exchange rate fluctuation affects balance sheet items unequally. Thus keeping check on the foreign exchange rate requires timely adjustment of both the items of revenue and expenditure, and those of assets and liabilities in different currencies. Political Risk: This is another important factor which the current financial management system does not take into account. This will be of significant importance when it comes to investing in developing countries where frequent changes in government policies occur. Does this system make sense? The financial strategy employed by AES was historically based on project finance. This approach solely took into account those factors that minimized AES exposure to the project and achieved the most beneficial regulatory treatment thus ensuring availability of financial resources to complete the project. The model worked well for the domestic market as well as for the international operations, provided the opportunities undertook by AES were either in the sector of building and running a power plant or simply buying an existing facility and upgrading it and then operating. The underlying assumption over here was that the symmetrical and asymmetrical risks faced by the project were more or less same irrespective of its geographical location (Refer to Exhibit 3). However when AES started diversifying the breadth of its operations by incorporating other offshoots of energy related business and transforming from a cogeneration to a more utility organization with majority of expansion occurring in developing economies. This diversification of business increased the symmetrical risks like business risk, a classic example of which we see in Brazil where AES experience shortfall in demand /sales volume due to Energy Conservation Policy of Brazilian government and this had a chain effect on debt servicing capacity of the SPV as well the stock price of the parent company. Other factor that current model was not able to include was the risk of devaluation of currency in developing economies which resulted in significant losses due to the inability of the company to survive its international debt obligations. Expansion in developing economies also exposed the business to political risk where the policies change erratically with changes in government. Hence we see that the geographical diversification of business causes asymmetrical risk to increase causing bimodal behavior in the result. Project financing becomes less recommendable as a symmetrical risk becomes more manifest. This constitutes a problem for emerging countries where these risks tends to be at the forefront. Lal Pir Project Valuation Scenario 1: Pakistan In order to calculate the value of project for the Lal Pir project in Pakistan, we first need to calculate the Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC) using the new proposed methodology. For this we have followed the approach given in exhibit 8 of the case. The first step is to calculate the value of levered ? using the formula and information given in the case[3]. The value of the levered ? comes out to be 0. 3852 or 38. 52%, which essentially means that our project is not very highly correlated to the market return. Using this value of ? we now calculate the cost of Equity (refer Exhibit 4A). We have used the return on U. S. Treasury Bond (i. e. 4. 5%) as the risk free return in calculating the cost of equity. The cost of equity comes out to be 0. 072 and similarly, using the risk free return and the default spread (given in exhibit 7a of case) we calculate the cost of debt which comes out to be 0. 0807. It is important to note that the cost of debt and the cost of equity also need to be adjusted for the sovereign spread (0. 0990 for Pakistan). Once we have the adjusted costs of equity and capital we can now calculate the WACC for the project using the formula given in case where we essentially multiply equity and debt ratio with the adjusted costs of equity and debt respectively[4]. The WACC in this scenario comes out to be 0. 1595 or 15. 95%. However, now we need to adjust this WACC for the risks associated with doing the project in Pakistan and we do this by using Table A given in the case. We know that the total Risk Score for Pakistan is 1. 425 and since there is a linear relationship between business specific risk scores and cost of capital[5] we need to adjust our WACC by 7. 125% thus making our final WACC 23. 075%, using which we calculate our NPV (refer to Exhibit 6) from the year 2004 to 2023, and it comes out to be negative $234. 34 million. Scenario 2: USA For USA similar calculations are made to calculate the WACC (Exhibit 4B). However there are two things that are different. First we see the sovereign spread is equal to zero. Secondly, in this case we would need to calculate the business risk using the information given in exhibit 7a of the case (refer to Exhibit 5). This score comes out to be 0. 64 and using this score, our business risk comes out to be 3. 23% and adding it to our calculated value of WACC, we get our final WACC of 9. 64%. Using this we calculate our NPV for USA which comes out to be negative $ 35. 92 million (refer to Exhibit 7). Adjusted Cost of Capital and Probabilities of Real Events in Pakistan In calculating the adjusted cost of capital for Pakistan the WACC is adjusted for six common types of risks: Operational, Counterparty, Regulatory, Construction, Commodity, Currency and Legal. We can clearly see from table A given in the case that besides construction there is a probability of all these risks actually effecting the project in Pakistan. In these, the highest probability is that of currency risk and the legal risk. The adjusted cost that we have calculated is adjusted by the total risk score for Pakistan. There is a linear relationship between the total risk score and adjustment to the cost of capital, i. e. a score of 1 leads to an adjustment of 500 basis points in the WACC. When we calculate the WACC for Pakistan through traditional formula it comes out to be 15. 95%, however in order to incorporate the risk factor associated with Pakistan we need to adjust it for the Total Risk Score, which in this case is 1. 425. So we simply multiply this by 500 and we find out that we need to adjust our WACC 23. 075%. Since this 23. 075% is adjusted using the total risk score we can safely assume that it incorporates for the probability of the afro-mentioned six types of risks in WACC with respect to Pakistan. Discount Rate Adjustment: USA v/s Pakistan As mentioned earlier the discount rate is adjusted based on the total risk score of the country. This total risk score is compiled from 6 main types of risks, the probability of which varies from country to country. If we simply compare the risk scores for USA and Pakistan[6], we can see that there is a major difference between the risk profiles of both the countries. For instance, while currency, regulatory and legal risks are significantly high in Pakistan, they do not exist in the USA at all. Also we see that operational, counterparty and commodity risks are higher in USA as compared to Pakistan. Similarly when the respective WACCs of the two countries are adjusted for their risk we see that the adjusted WACC for Pakistan (23. 075%) is much higher as opposed to that of USA (9. 64%), which essentially implies that Pakistan is inherently a riskier country to invest in as opposed to the USA and any investments made in this region would have to cross a higher hurdle rate than if they were made in the US region.

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Philosophy of Counseling Essay

The purpose of the school counseling program is to guarantee academic, social, and professional success among all students. School counseling is s collaborative relationship between students, school counselors, teachers, parents, administrators, and the community. Through these partnerships, the counseling program will develop a support system to enhance student achievement and promote growth of future productive citizens. The role of the school counselor is very active. School counselors must be an assertive advocate by creating opportunities for all students to foster their dreams and achieve their goals. A dedicated counselor plays a major role in the school through research, data, collaboration, individual counseling, group counseling, career planning, and caring for the students overall well being. The school counselor serves as a leader and team member; working with parents and school personnel to make sure that each student succeeds. Human nature can be viewed as all individuals are considered equally good. People are creatures of habit and learn from their cultural upbringings and the ones around them. Now days, students deal with poverty, single-parent households, thoughts of suicide, neglect, abuse and so much more. In this complex society, it is necessary to provide learning experiences which will empower the child to overcome life challenges and set achievable goals. Goals can be reached by change. I feel an individual can change through awareness and influence. Students have to want to change and be aware that there is a need for change. The role of the professional school counselor is to support and influence the student. Change is achievable by tracking data and giving constructive feedback. The counselor will assist student in their academic, social, emotional and personal change and help to decide the best ways to successfully achieve their goals. Disaggregating data is the foundation for the school counseling program. The use of these resources will track student progress and provide evidence for growth. Data also helps the school counselor understand what is and is not working in the counseling program. If a student is not successful then we are not providing the correct interventions for that particular student. The changing needs of students, families and schools require professional school counselors who are current with new counseling programs. These programs must focus of students academic, career, and personal/ social needs. I feel as society changes that the students are setting the new goals for the counseling program. It is essential for the school counselor to foster and set realistic achievable goals for the student.

Friday, November 8, 2019

Charles Inglis essays

Charles Inglis essays Charles Inglis was born in Donegal, Ireland in 1734. As an Anglican clergyman and a Loyalist, he came to America. He became a teacher and then was ordained to London, England in 1758. He returned though to America in 1759 to be a missionary in Dover, Delaware until 1765. In late 1765, Charles Inglis worked with Rev. Thomas B. Chandler as assistant to the rector of Trinity Church in New York City. During this time he worked for establishment of an American diocese. After the outbreak of the Revolution in 1776, Charles Inglis answered Thomas Paines Common Sense and it was titled The True Interest of America. Following Rev. Samuel Auchmuty, Charles Inglis became Rector of Trinity in 1777; he continued writing against the American reason over the pen name Papinian. In 1783 he returned to England where he was consecrated first Bishop if Nova Scotia in 1787. Charles Iglis was a very good writer. He cared a lot about how America treated him. I dont really thing he got enough recognition because I couldnt find out a lot about him. I wish I were able to though. He seemed to have done a lot for writing in America and expressing feelings freely. He is a great role model for writers who want to change the world. ...

Tuesday, November 5, 2019

Free Essays on Gangs

"Once inside, I was walked through a gauntlet of desperate men. Their hot smell in the muggy corridor was as foul as their appearance. None of them seemed to have a full set of front teeth. Many bore prominently displayed tattoos of skulls or demons. One could argue whether it was the look of these men that led them to prison or whether it was the prison that gave them their look. Just looking at them made me fear for my life" (Hassine, 7). Most inmates in correctional facilities felt the way that Victor Hassine felt on his first day in a correctional facility in Pennsylvania called Graterford State Prison. New inmates are seen as "fresh meat". They fear their life. Most of these inmates find sanctuary in gangs. Inmates join gangs for protection. Gangs in correctional facilities are more of a necessity, unlike street gangs. People don't need a gang to survive in the street because there are other ways one can find help, a family, protection, belongingness, etc. But in correctional facilities one's outlets are limited. One's preoccupation in jail is survival, which leads inmates to change their habits, personality, and even their values. Living in an environment where "an unexpected smile could mean trouble, a man in uniform is not a friend, being kind is a weakness, and eye contact is a threat" doesn't leave one much of a choice, does it? There are numerous gangs in correctional facilities but among the most common are the Latin Kings, Five Percent Nation, and the Netas. Some gangs in these facilities are extensions of neighborhood street gangs. Their names are based on their urban location, like the 21st and Norris Gang, the 60th and Market Gang, and the 10th Street Gang in Philadelphia. There are also less common prison gangs like Los Solidos, Latin Locos, G27, Nation, Brotherhood, Elm City Boys, 20 Luv, and Esses. White gangs almost always originate in prison and are a minority. They a... Free Essays on Gangs Free Essays on Gangs The book that I chose to read was a book called â€Å"Gangs† by a woman named Karen L. Kinnear. I chose this book for one simple reason, the tag at the bottom of the front cover. The tag on the cover says Contemporary World Issues. I wanted to read something that was current in today’s society and it was something that is pretty familiar to many young black men these days. If black men are not involved in gangs then they are very knowledgeable about them. This book talked about what gangs are, who joins gangs and why, and many other facets involving gangs. According to the book, a gang is very difficult to define. This is so because of the questions proposed. One question that was asked was if a gang is just a group of people who hang around each other. Then another question that was asked was if adults in a group could be classified as a gang. Then it was asked if the group has to be involved in some kind of criminal behavior. All these questions make it obvious to see that gangs plague today’s society to a point that we can not even put a definition on what a gang really is. According to this book by Karen Kinnear, defining gangs is often a political issue that reflects the interests and agendas of the various individuals and agencies involved with gangs. These individuals and agencies would happen to be law-enforcement personnel, politicians, advocates, social workers, the media, and researchers. After reading this part, I was highly shocked at how true that really was, and I really never recognized that until readin g it here in this book. The definition of a gang has changed from each person who defines it to the next. A researcher named Frederic Thrasher decided to offer his definition in the year of 1927. He said that a gang â€Å"is an interstitial group, originally formed spontaneously, and then integrated through conflict. It is characterized by the following types of behavior; meeting face to face, milling,... Free Essays on Gangs Gangs are a violent reality that people have to deal with in today's cities. What has made these groups come about? Why do kids feel that being in a gang is both an acceptable and prestigious way to live? The long-range answer to these questions can only be speculated upon, but in the short term the answers are much easier to find. On the surface, gangs are a direct result of human beings' personal wants and peer pressure. To determine how to effectively end gang violence we must find the way that these morals are given to the individual. Unfortunately, these can only be hypothesized. However, by looking at the way humans are influenced in society, there is good evidence to point the blame at several institutions. These include the forces of the media, the government, theatre, drugs and our economic system. On the surface, gangs are caused by peer pressure and greed. Many teens in gangs will pressure peers into becoming part of a gang by making it all sound glamorous. Money is also a crucial factor. A kid (a 6-10 year old, who is not yet a member) is shown that s/he could make $200 to $400 for small part time gang jobs. Although these are important factors they are not strong enough to make kids do things that are strongly against their morals. One of the ways that children’s morals are bent so that gang violence becomes more acceptable is the influence of television and movies. The average child spends more time at a TV than she/he spends in a classroom. Since no one can completely turn off their minds, these children must be learning something while watching the television. Few hours of television watched by children are educational, so other ideas are being absorbed during this period of time. Many shows on television today are extremely violent and are often shown from a gang's perspective. A normal adult can see that this is showing how foully gangs are living. However, to a child this portrays a violent gang existence as accepta... Free Essays on Gangs Gangs have been and will always be a part of society, They have in one form or another been around for hundreds of years. For example pirates were in some way or another a form of an organized gang. The groups that traditionally come to mind when one thinks of modern day gangs are the Crips and the Bloods from California, and the people Folk originating from Chicargo. The origins of the Crips and Bloods can be traced to the late 60's, and the gang culture is so ingrained on the west coast that many families have three and even four generations of gangsters residing in the same residence. The people Folks started out in the late 70 and early 80’s Depending on whose figures you listen to (some officials have a tendency to downsize the numbers). As of January, 1993, L.A. gangs set’s numbered between 800 and 1000, with anywhere from 120,000 to 220,000 members. These numbers are often debated, and depending on whose criteria is used to decide who is and is not a gangbang er. The figures could be considerably higher. This paper will elaborate on some of the facts surrounding Juvenile gangs. Over the past several years we have seen a increase in the number of juvenile crimes and juveniles joining organized gangs. These juveniles are not only joining at a younger age but are committing more violent crimes then there antecedent. What makes these young men and women decide to participate in the violent and often deadly crimes of gangs? Why would a youngster be so eager to submit himself or herself to the torture of initiation or risk there life by having sex with a known person that’s HIV positive? Although varies regions of the country may have different meanings or definition for the term "gang member" a good description for a gang can be found in the November 1991 issue of school safety update published by Pepperdine University’s National School Safety Center, it defines a gang as "A group of three or more individuals with... Free Essays on Gangs Gangs Gangs are a violent reality that people have to deal with in today's cities. What has made these groups come about? Why do kids feel that being in a gang is both an acceptable and prestigious way to live? The long range answer to these questions can only be speculated upon, but in the short term the answers are much easier to find. On the surface, gangs are a direct result of human beings' personal wants and peer pressure. To determine how to effectively end gang violence we must find the way that these morals are given to the individual. Unfortunately, these can only be hypothesized. However, by looking at the way humans are influenced in society, I believe there is good evidence to point the blame at several institutions. These include the forces of the media, the government, theater, drugs and our economic system. On the surface, gangs are caused by peer pressure and greed. Many teens in gangs will pressure peers into becoming part of a gang by making it all sound glamorous. Money is also an crucial factor. A kid (a 6-10 year old, who is not yet a member) is shown that s/he could make $200 to $400 for small part time gang jobs. Although these are important factors they are not strong enough to make kids do things that are strongly against their morals. One of the ways that kids morals are bent so that gang violence becomes more acceptable is the influence of television and movies. The average child spends more time at a TV than she/he spends in a classroom. Since nobody can completely turn off their minds, kids must be learning something while watching the TV. Very few hours of television watched by children are educational, so other ideas are being absorbed during this period of time. Many shows on television today are extremely violent and are often shown this from a gang's perspective. To a child this portrays a violent gang existence as acceptable. 'The Ends Justifies the Means' mentality is also t... Free Essays on Gangs "Once inside, I was walked through a gauntlet of desperate men. Their hot smell in the muggy corridor was as foul as their appearance. None of them seemed to have a full set of front teeth. Many bore prominently displayed tattoos of skulls or demons. One could argue whether it was the look of these men that led them to prison or whether it was the prison that gave them their look. Just looking at them made me fear for my life" (Hassine, 7). Most inmates in correctional facilities felt the way that Victor Hassine felt on his first day in a correctional facility in Pennsylvania called Graterford State Prison. New inmates are seen as "fresh meat". They fear their life. Most of these inmates find sanctuary in gangs. Inmates join gangs for protection. Gangs in correctional facilities are more of a necessity, unlike street gangs. People don't need a gang to survive in the street because there are other ways one can find help, a family, protection, belongingness, etc. But in correctional facilities one's outlets are limited. One's preoccupation in jail is survival, which leads inmates to change their habits, personality, and even their values. Living in an environment where "an unexpected smile could mean trouble, a man in uniform is not a friend, being kind is a weakness, and eye contact is a threat" doesn't leave one much of a choice, does it? There are numerous gangs in correctional facilities but among the most common are the Latin Kings, Five Percent Nation, and the Netas. Some gangs in these facilities are extensions of neighborhood street gangs. Their names are based on their urban location, like the 21st and Norris Gang, the 60th and Market Gang, and the 10th Street Gang in Philadelphia. There are also less common prison gangs like Los Solidos, Latin Locos, G27, Nation, Brotherhood, Elm City Boys, 20 Luv, and Esses. White gangs almost always originate in prison and are a minority. They a... Free Essays on Gangs GANGS AND THEIR EFFECTS ON FAMILIES Introduction The aim or objective of this paper is to thoroughly report on why individuals join gangs and how gang membership can put people’s friends, family and even themselves in jeopardy of being seriously injured or killed. The researcher is aiming towards a few topics on this paper such as gang membership, graffiti, violence and vandalism, and spreading gangs. Most people do not realize or do not know how dangerous gangs can be and this can lead to serious consequences. Literature Review Gangs affect the enviroment or city in which people live. They affect the enviroment of families and cause harm to victims and witnesses in areas of gang territory. Incentives or becoming a gang member, graffiti in the neighborhood, gang violence, the spread of gangs, and gang prevention will be explored thoroughly. The research found on gangs mainly focused on adolescent and young adult males. The most popular reason for joining a gang is coming from a dysfunctional family and wanting a sense of having a family (Lahey). These types of people do not think very highly of themselves. They feel good belonging to a gang because they believe that their family, friends or community has not paid any attention to them. People of certain races or cultures may believe that they are powerless or have no opportunities. Gus Gedatus states that â€Å"they may not feel that they are apart of society† (Gedatus 8). These types of people look at participating in a gang as being cool. Another popular reason for joining a gang is to follow family tradition. Some people’s parents or maybe even grandparents have belonged to a certain gang and will be upset or feel that the person is betraying the family. Youth form gangs because people fear it. This fear may give the members a sense of power. These types of gangs tend to move into neighborhoods that are unfamiliar with gang activit y in ... Free Essays on Gangs â€Å"GANGS† Across the United States there is a type of subculture that needs to be dealt with and destroyed. Gangs are the type of subculture at hand. Gangs can be defined as a subculture because they exist within society while maintaining their own norms, beliefs, and values. Gangs are a subculture of violence, whose values demand the use of violence in overt situations (Adler, Mueller, Laufer 2001). Gang membership promotes violence and other delinquent behavior from its members (such as vandalism and drug relations). Gangs need to be abolished if we hope to clean up our streets, get our children back in school, and have a chance at winning the drug war. Are you as person looking to seek a public office ready to deal with this issue? I will continue to give you some background knowledge of gangs. Let the fact be known that it is not illegal to be in a gang, but once a criminal action takes place gang members have stepped over the line and their membership is now perceived as illegal. One of the main ways that gang membership forms is from generation to generation. A child is exposed to the gang activity taking place in his or her neighborhood and may want to take part in this gang to fill an emotional void. This void might be in need of love from a â€Å"family† group, respect, or a sense of belonging to a peer group. A child might have older siblings that are members of a gang and the younger child longs to be like the older sibling. Youth might also join a gang for the protection from other gang violence and the chance to make money fast. Whatever the reason is for joining gangs, America’s youth believe that gang membership allows them to achieve a level of status that was impossible to attain outside of the gangs. It is estimated that there are more than 24,500 gangs active the United States in 2000 (Egley, 2001). The average number of gang members for 2000 was 750,000 (Egley, 2001). These number... Free Essays on Gangs Analysis of Gangs Gangs are a violent reality that people have to deal with in today’s society. What has made these groups come about? Why do kids feel that being in a gang is both an acceptable awn prestigious way to live? The long range answer to these questions can only be speculated upon, but in the short term the answers are much easier to find. On the surface, gangs are a direct result of human beings’ personal wants and peer pressure. To determine how to effectively end gang violence we must find the way that these morals are given to the individual. Unfortunately, these can only be hypothesized. However, by looking at the way humans are influenced in society, I believe there is much to blame. On the surface, gangs are caused by peer pressure and greed. Many teens in gangs will pressure peers into becoming part of a gang by making it sound glamorous. Money is also a crucial factor. A young kid is shown that he/she could make $200 to $400 for small part time gang jobs. This amount of money causes gang life to look like a gold mine. Anyone could use this kind of many, and attempt to get it. Although these are important factors they are not strong enough to make kids do things that are strongly against their morals. One of the ways that kids morals are bent so that gang violence becomes more acceptable is the influence of television and movies. The average child spends more time at in front of a television set than he/she spends in a classroom. Since their minds are still working, they take in what is on the television and â€Å"learn† from it. Unfortunately, very few hours of television watched by children are educational. Many shows on television today are extremely violent. This shows children that gang life is exciting as well as acceptable. This is taught through many shows where the â€Å"good guy† captures the â€Å"bad guy† through violence and is then being commended. A young child sees this as ...

Sunday, November 3, 2019

You can create this Research Proposal Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

You can create this - Research Proposal Example Welcoming international trade, the country is expanding its business relations with Spain (its closest neighbor), the US, and African countries. In many cases goods shipped to Portugal do not arrive there directly, but come to some other country of the EU, and only then travel to Portugal – in order to use the advantage of lower value added tax rates of the other country. Companies entering the Portuguese market are welcome to contact the closest US Export Assistance Center which supports exporters. U.S. & Foreign Commercial Service (100) recommends entering the market with an assistance of a local partner. Besides, finding a group or a right person to obtain useful advice and contacts is considered to be very beneficial because personal contacts are important for conducting a successful business in the country. In order to establish an office in Portugal, one should create a Portuguese company according to the country’s law. For most tenders and goods price is more important than quality. So, in order for a product to be competitive, the price must not be higher than that of the rivals. Portuguese importers now prefer to receive C.I.F. or F.O.B. quotations that include a product description, shipping weight, volume and time of shipment and delivery. Though such invoices (with all the mentioned above information) are not mandatory, they are very desirable. The largest part of the businesses of the country is concentrated in Lisbon, a capital of Portugal. Modern techniques of conducting business are widely spread in the country. However, traditional values are still in a great respect: personal contact and a handshake are still considered by many Portuguese businessmen to be more valuable than a signed contract. At the same time, a request for a formal contract will not offend them. At the same time, personal relations are valued and respected more than any legal

Friday, November 1, 2019

The description, feeding and threats of Arabian oryx Essay

The description, feeding and threats of Arabian oryx - Essay Example It has black markings on its face and legs and is of the size of a deer. It has reasonably long legs with wide hooves that help them in running in deserts. It possesses a splendid peripheral vision that helps it in spotting predators. It has the ability to increase its body temperature and make it higher than the ambient air in order to lose inordinate body heat (Walther, 1990). Although, sweating also helps the animal in loosing heat. The ability to increase its body temperature permits the Arabian Oryx to release heat into the surroundings. The brain is, however, protected during the process of increasing body temperature by the cool blood that returns from the nasal pathways, thus absorbing heat from arterial blood that is destined for the brain (Walther, 1990). (National Wildlife Research Center, 2007). The Oryx leucoryx (Arabian Oryx) is also known as white Oryx. It is a moderate-size antelope with a distinguishable shoulder bump, a tufted tail and long and unbowed horns. It is a bovine and is the smallest-sized member of the genus Oryx, native to steppe and deserted regions of the Arabian Peninsula. By the years 1970s, the Oryx leucoryx had vanished in the wild but was preserved in private preserves and zoos and then was reintroduced, in 1980s, into the wild (Wildscreen, 2013). It was enlisted as an endangered species in 1986 on the IUCN Red List while it was the first animal species that was reverted to vulnerable status after being categorized as extinct species in the wild. The populations of Arabian Oryx, in 2011, were estimated to be more than 1,000 animals in the wild while there are around 6,000-7,000 animals in the preservation areas and zoos worldwide (Wildscreen, 2013). General Description The scientific name of Arabian Oryx is Oryx leucoryx. It belongs to the Order Artiodactyla, family Bovidae. Its range of habitat noticed formerly was Iraq, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Arabian Peninsula and Sinai. Sand deserts and gravel plains constitute the habita t of Arabian Oryx. Its diet includes herbs, fruits, grasses, melons and roots. The average body length has been found to be around 5.3 ft/ 160cm. The average shoulder height is approximately 2.7-3.4 ft/ 81-102 cm. The tail length has been recorded to be 1.5-2 ft/ 45-60 cm while its weight is 143-154 lb/ 65-70 kg (AZA, 2009). The colour of its coat is white in colour, without any colour washes, as noticed in the other species of Oryx. The colour of its legs is brownish black, excluding the ankles, which have white bands. Its face is spotted with black splotches that run from the eyes, beneath the jowls and down the cheeks, and dark hair triangles are noticeable down the nose bridge as well as on the forehead. The tasselled tail of the Arabian Oryx is somewhat dark brown and black. The unbowed, long, ridged horns are noticed in both sexes of the Arabian Oryx, growing 1.6-2.2 feet/ 50-68 cm long (AZA, 2009). It is a white, graceful antelope, standing 3 to 4 feet tall and around 300 pou nds weight, with black markings on the legs and face. Its white cost radiates the sunlight while during cold mornings heat is absorbed by the dark legs from the ground. The wide ears of the Arabian Oryx are circular at the tips. It is a keen-sighted animal, alert and wary, which protects itself by lowering its head in order to point forward its horns (AZA, 2009). The wandering herd comprises a leading male and various females with their young ones. Arabian Oryx is able to go without water for long periods, and the