Wednesday, July 31, 2019
Sinners in the hands of an angry GodÃ¢â¬ as a constant threat to all human beings When our view turns to North America in the first half of the 18th century, the brightest phenomenon is the Ã¢â¬Å"Calvinistic Great Awakening,Ã¢â¬ which began with the sermon of Theodor Frelinghuysen in the Dutch Reformed communities of New Jersey in 1726. One of the greatest representatives of that time was Jonathan Edwards.Ã Due to Jonathan EdwardsÃ¢â¬â¢ sermon Ã¢â¬Å"Sinners in the hands of angry GodÃ¢â¬ Ã he can truly be called as Ã¢â¬Å"one of the greatest theologians and pastors of America, who stood at the origins of the Great Awakening.Ã¢â¬ Jonathan EdwardsÃ¢â¬â¢ sermon Ã¢â¬Å"Sinners in the hands of an angry GodÃ¢â¬ is the most famous sermon in the history of America. The sermon was read in Enfield, Connecticut, July 8, 1741, at the peak of the First Great Awakening. This is a typical Puritan Ã¢â¬Å"awakening sermon,Ã¢â¬ which warns of a court that hangs over unbelieving people. It also tells about the mercy of God, who keeps his enemies from instantly overthrowing Hell. One of the most important moments for Edwards was that every person should feel his sermon, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s why he carefully selected the words to make his listeners take the topic exactly as reality. To achieve this goal, he used bright images in his explanations together with the biblical teaching. As a result of this sermon, the listeners experienced a dramatic revival. There are many meaningful quotations from the sermon, but we want to concentrate your attention on the one, that is being discussed enough. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã¢â¬ Their foot will slip in their timeÃ¢â¬ ¦ when their foot is shakenÃ¢â¬ (Deuteronomy 32:35). In this verse there is a threat to God of the wicked, unbelieving Israelites who were the chosen people of God and lived under His mercy; but who, despite His tremendous work on them, resembled stiff, reckless people (Deut. 32:28). After all that was done for them, they brought a bitter and poisonous fruit, as you see in 32 and 33 verses of the same chapter. The citation Ã¢â¬Å"their foot will slip in their timeÃ¢â¬ seems to imply something very close to the punishment and death of sinful Israelites, who were left by God to their fate. Another truth that is laid down in this verse says that they are in danger of falling, as well as those who stand or walk on the ice. They do not need any interference; their weight will knock them down. The reason why they havenÃ¢â¬â¢t fallen yet is only one Ã¢â¬â the time appointed by God has not come. Therefore, it is said that when it comes Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"their foot will slip.Ã¢â¬ God will no longer support them in a slippery place; He will leave them alone. And then they will instantly perish, because they are similar to people on the edge of a slippery sloping plane, which, as soon as they are released, will fall and break. Image of hell in the sermon. Jonathan Edwards was a consistent opponent of Arminianism and perceived freedom of the action from the position of compatibilism. He first gave the clearest definition of Ã¢â¬Å"free will,Ã¢â¬ that human freedom is not an opportunity to do what a person decides to do, but rather what he wants. He also pays a lot of attention to the explanation and meaning of hell. God keeps all unconverted in His hands over the hellish abyss. Everyone by nature deserves this hell; God is angry with sinners, and unless they believe in Christ, they canÃ¢â¬â¢t feel secure. They have nothing to grasp. EdwardsÃ¢â¬â¢ vivid descriptions of hell and eternal torment are examples of the emotional appeal pathos. For example, EdwardsÃ¢â¬â¢ states, Ã¢â¬Å"The devil is waiting for them; hell is gaping for them, the flames gather and flash about them, and would fain lay hold on them, and swallow them upÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ . In this example the audience can imagine the horrors of hell, which encourages them to look to God for salvation, thus also making use of logos as the audience rationalizes and considers the situation. God has enough strength to drop sinners into hell at any moment. When He rebels, people become helpless; and even the strongest of them canÃ¢â¬â¢t resist Him, and no one can deliver them from His hand. For Him there is no difficulty in instantly plunging corrupt people into hell, He can do this very, very easily. Sovereignty of God, original sin, and salvation in the sermon. Jonathan Edwards describes hell to make the sinners aware of what is waiting for them in the nearest future. Also, he is disturbed by the next questions: The sovereignty of God. The doctrine of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s dominion permeates the preaching, writings and the entire theological system of Edward. God predestines and fully controls all things, and He can never be disappointed in His will. The world exists in complete and absolute dependence on God, and GodÃ¢â¬â¢s sovereign purpose extends to all His actions in creation, providence, and By the historic Reformed tradition, Edwards examines the truths about GodÃ¢â¬â¢s sovereignty and human responsibility as a paradox that is humanly incomprehensible, but not contradictory. Original sin. Edwards believes that the whole human race sinned through the fall of Adam. All mankind inherited sinfulness, guilt and moral corruption because of their relationship to Adam. Falling from the original righteousness caused alienation of humanity from the rest of creation and distorted the image of God in people. Edwards emphasizes that the heart of a sinner has hardened, and his violation of the law enslaves him. Therefore, he manifests an open opposition to God and disrespect for Him. This sober and pessimistic view of human nature contrasted sharply with the optimism that arose in the colonies before the Revolution and continues to this day. Salvation is only in grace. The view of Edwards on the absolute necessity of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s grace for salvation follows from his understanding of the sinful and spoiled state of man. In his Ã¢â¬Å"Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God,Ã¢â¬ he argues that human is not an independent ability. Rather, it reacts to its nature, its predominant motives or traits, which, since the fall, are marred by sin for all people. Thus, Edwards concludes that man is helpless to save himself or even cooperate in this process. He is convinced that a sinner by nature never chooses God unless God interferes with His special, effective and irresistible grace. That theme can be important to everyone. Edwards tries to convey that in the souls of sinners reign the infernal principles which, without GodÃ¢â¬â¢s limitations, could have already inflamed in them, flaring up with infernal fire. EdwardsÃ¢â¬â¢ sermon and especially his later writings reflect this diagnosis of the fallen human condition. In the Ã¢â¬Å"Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God,Ã¢â¬ Edwards tries to show all the horror of the lives of sinners after death. He explains that the only one salvation is a faith in God. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s never too late to change; God will always listen to you.
Following the deregulation of the telecommunication industry in United Kingdom, a number of competitors and substitute products have emerged. With the mandate under the Communications Act 2003, the Office of Communication (OfCom) was established as a regulatory office for the UK communications industries, which includes television, radio, telecommunications, and wireless communications services.Its scope, under the Communications Act 2003, is as follows: 1. to further the interest of citizens in relation to communication matters, and 2. to further the interests of consumers in relevant markets, where appropriate by promoting competition.The British Telecommunications (BT) is one of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s leading providers of communications solutions and services, which operates in 170 countries around the world. In the United Kingdom, BT serves over 20 million business and residential customers with more than 30 million exchange lines, as well as providing network services to other licen sed operators. Its BT Retail subsidiary is UKÃ¢â¬â¢s largest communication service provider, by market share, to the consumer and small business markets. It supplies a wide range of communication products and services, including voice, data, internet, and multimedia services (online BT.com). Once a nationalized company, BT plc has traditionally dominated the UKÃ¢â¬â¢s fixed line telecom market, controlling over 80 percent of the UKÃ¢â¬â¢s access lines, earning ? 8,507 million in revenues for 2006 (BT Annual Report 2006). However, the passage of the Communications Act 2003 has been intended to increase competition to the once monopolized of the fixed line industry in UK. Industry experts predicted that BT RetailÃ¢â¬â¢s share of the UKÃ¢â¬â¢s fixed line market will fall from 82 percent to 45 percent over the next decade as increased competition begins to bite.At the moment, around 93 percent of UK households have a fixed line, with eight in ten supplied by BT. However, despi te the predicament of many industry experts, the benefits of increased competition has not been achieved as BT continue to have strong market dominance within the UK fixed line industry (Richardson 2005). Table 1. British TelecomÃ¢â¬â¢s Retail connections Year end 31 March 2003 2004 2005 2006 Total Retail connections (Ã¢â¬Ë000) 29,566 29,661 29,630 28,293 Business 9,208 9,111 8,780 8,353 Residential 20,358 20,550 20,850 19,940 Source: British Telecom Group plc (2006).BT Group plc Annual 2005 Report. (United Kingdom: BT Group) [Online] Available: http://www. btplc. com/Sharesandperformance/Annualreportandreview/Annualreports/Cautionarystatement. htm Table 2. British TelecomÃ¢â¬â¢s Broadband customers Year end 31 March 2003 2004 2005 2006 BT Wholesale ADSL end users (Ã¢â¬Ë000) 803 2,226 4,973 7,949 of which are LLU lines 3 11 41 356 of which are BT retail customers 439 967 1,752 2,584 Source: British Telecom Group plc (2006). BT Group plc Annual 2005 Report. (United Kingdom: B T Group) [Online] Available: http://www. btplc.com/Sharesandperformance/Annualreportandreview/Annualreports/Cautionarystatement. htm Despite the high penetration of fixed line business of British Telecom, the level of penetration for broadband services is still very low in the United Kingdom. Project Aims and Objectives The primary objectives of this dissertation will be to determine why many British consumers still opt to use the dial-up as internet connection in the United Kingdom and how companies can attract users to use broadband services. We also review the current market environment such as policies of Ofcom that could affect a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s marketing strategy.The following is a list of objectives which the author aspires to accomplish in the dissertation: 1. A background study on the current internet access industry in the United Kingdom and prospects on the industryÃ¢â¬â¢s growth. 2. An exploration on the relevant theory on the impact of brand equity and brand position ing on companyÃ¢â¬â¢s profitability and market share. 3. A proposal on effective branding approaches to mitigate the increasing competition with the deregulation of the telecommunication industry in United Kingdom. Importance and Relevance of the ResearchPrimarily the research will be valuable to any business industry or body attempting to build on its business strategies, customer relations and competitiveness in a competitive industry. The research would make businesses more aware of the importance of business strategies in a very competitive industry. It gives you an idea about how businesses can know more about their markets segments and attract more markets. Secondary impact of the research will be on a long term scale, it will aid retail marketing initiatives. The trends of the industry and the markets will have a significant impact on the whole field in the future.The research may also be essential to other interested parties such as the educational institutions business un iversities, news papers and government. The paper will also be useful later on in academics for future references. The Overview of the Study The remainder of this study is as following statement: Chapter 2, Internet Access industry background and market analysis, will provide first a concise information on the industry market value, market segmentation, and leading companies. We will provide a strategic competitive analysis of the industry using PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s Five Forces of Competition and SWOT Analysis using BT Group.We will also briefly discuss OfcomÃ¢â¬â¢s strategic review of the telecommunication industry and its effect on industry players in particular British Telecom. Review of brand management, will review related literature on the brand management such as brand equity and brand positioning. Identify the long-term effects of the effective brand positioning in increasing market share within the industry. Chapter 3, Methodology, will present the methods of collecting primar y data from consumers and the chosen research method for the dissertation. Chapter 4, Results and Discussion, will present and discuss the results of the survey.The discussion will also relate the relevant literature and the results that have been obtained from the survey. Chapter 5, Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations, the Ã¢â¬Å"SummaryÃ¢â¬ section will first provide a comprehensive summary of the major findings of this study. The Ã¢â¬Å"ConclusionÃ¢â¬ section will highlight the implications of the research findings. Finally, Ã¢â¬Å"RecommendationsÃ¢â¬ will be proposed to on the possible approaches to effectively implement an effective branding strategy to mitigate the increasing competition in the telecommunications industry. CHAPTER 2: Review of Related LiteratureThe literature review will consist of three parts: (1) Environmental Analysis, highlighting the recent deregulation and increasing competition within the industry, (2) Competitive Position of British Teleco ms for the market segment of broadband services, and (3) Review of related literature on brand management. In the Environmental Analysis section, the research will discuss the competitive landscape of the broadband market in UK, and define the nature of competition within the industry. The research will describe the role of Ofcom in promoting competition within the industry and specific market segment.The research will describe the market size, volume and growth of the industry. Second, the research will discuss the competitive position of the British Telecom in the market. It will provide an assessment of BTÃ¢â¬â¢s strengths and weaknesses and how BT has a very strong foothold of the market. Lastly, the review will also highlight the importance of brand management in growing the broadband services business of British Telecom. In this paper, we follow the framework of Delta model which has been proposed by Hax and Wilde.The Delta model defines three points (1) strategic positions that reflect the fundamentally new sources of profitability, (2) aligns these strategic options with a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s activities and provides congruency between strategic direction and execution, and (3) introduces adaptive processes capable of continually responding to an uncertain environment (Hax and Wilde II 1999). The Delta model integrates the structural analysis and value chain framework from Porter with the resource-based view on the Firm and complement those with new Extended Enterprise perspective and with offering Total Customer Solutions.The Internet Service ProvidersÃ¢â¬â¢ Association United Kingdom defines the internet access market consisting of total revenues generated by Internet Service Providers (ISPs) from the provision of narrowband and broadband Internet connection through both consumer and corporate channels (Datamonitor, 2007). The United Kingdom Internet access market generated total revenues of $8. 2 billion in 2006, this representing a compound annual gro wth rate (CAGR) of 6. 4% for the period spanning 2002-2006 (Datamonitor, 2007).In a survey conducted by the Office of Telecommunications, 93 percent of homes currently own a fixed line phone, this proportion has remained stable at just over 90 percent for the last year. At least 4 in 5 households are using BT for their fixed line; however, at least a quarter of BT customers would consider using another supplier if they offered services of equal quality. Furthermore, 18 percent of the respondents mentioned barriers to switching as their reason for remaining with BT rather than positive reasons.These consumers were largely living in non-cabled areas with less choice of fixed line suppliers (Office of Telecommunications 2003). Brand name and the Quality of service The main reason BT customers gave for not switching to another operator was satisfaction with BT, this being driven by the fact that the vast majority of satisfied customers (72%) have never experienced any problems with thei r services. Generally, BT customers value the service quality and reliability above cost, suggesting that the trustworthiness of other suppliers alone is not sufficient incentive for these consumers to switch (Office of Telecommunications 2003).Barriers to switching A quarter of customers that would remain with BT if other suppliers offered an equal service, mentioned barriers as their reason for remaining with BT. This equates to 18 percent of all BT customers. The barriers mentioned included: switching being too much hassle, cost of switching, unaware of other suppliers, always used BT, and the additional services. The research, however, notes that the respondents are more likely to live in a non-cabled area Ã¢â¬â hence limited availability of alternative providers (Office of Telecommunications 2003).Key trends in the telecommunications industry The key word in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s technology is convergence. In the last two years, global telecommunications company have been developin g the next-generation voice services that could cut corporate call costs by automatically routing traffic between fixed line and mobile infrastructure (online ITWeek). One key development has been the development of Fixed Mobile Internet Convergence, where IT and media industry deliver both content and the infrastructure to consumers.The widespread adoption of Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) has been a promising to consumers yet holds a mixed fate for the fixed line telecoms market. On a positive note, it offers cheap or often free long distance calling to consumers and can therefore boost market share. However, this may be at the expense of diverted traditional sales and loss of line rental and call revenue on fixed lines. On the other hand, VoIP take-up could spread with the proliferation of wireless broadband, as opposed to wireline broadband, which will serve to expand the fixed line market and encourage a more rapid take up of wireless technologies.The development of more s ophisticated mobile phones and PDA also threaten to detract from fixed line sales as these devices develop the same quality of capabilities as fixed line services (online IT Week). Analysis of Competition The Delta Model builds on the structural analysis of Michael Porter to gain insight and understand the external factors determining the industry attractiveness and match it with the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s resources to be successful in the industry (Hax and Wilde II 1999).In his book Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitors, Michael Porter discusses the five forces of competition in an industry. He illustrated the five competitive forces as: (1) Rivalry between competing sellers in an industry, (2) potential entry of new competitors, (3) the market attempts of companies in other industries to win customers over to their own substitute products, (4) the competitive pressures stemming from supplier-seller collaboration and bargaining, and (5) the competitive pr essure stemming from seller-buyer collaboration and bargaining (Porter 1985).PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s five forces of competition is a widely used tool to determine the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s current strengths and competitive position. Having a clear picture of the balance of power in a competitive industry will help in planning for a sustained growth in the industry. In the Figure 5, the researchers analyzed and plot the competitive forces in UKÃ¢â¬â¢s fixed line telecom industry (Porter 1985). Rivalry of Sellers: Moderate The UK market is relatively fragmented, with no one company dominant.For end users, switching costs are not very high, and in fact Ã¢â¬Ëcustomer churn' is often cited as an issue that ISPs must cope with, particularly in the consumer market. A typical company offers a diverse range of communication-based services, such as TV and telephony, so success in the Internet access business need not be vital to its survival. Furthermore, rapid market growth means that players are not fighting to win a share of a static market from their competitors. Rivalry in this market is assessed as moderate.Buyer Power: Moderate ISPs offer their Internet access services to customers ranging from consumers to large corporations. As fairly similar services can be offered to customers of all sizes, the typical size is quite small. Switching costs are moderate, and include the time required to leave one contract and move to a competing contract. There is some differentiation: for example, one player may offer consumer Internet access as a standalone service, while another bundles it with cable TV services.Also brand loyalty may be significant if an ISP gains a particularly good (or bad) reputation among users. As the Internet has high penetration in the UK, corporate customers in particular will consider the service of vital importance to their business. Overall, buyer power is assessed as moderate. Supplier Power: Strong ISPs act as intermediaries between their customers and the telecommunication infrastructure that underpins the Internet (and telephony): ADSL lines, servers, packet switching software, and so on.Some ISPs, especially telecoms incumbents such as BT, own and operate an extensive physical network themselves. For these companies, key suppliers are manufacturers of the hardware and software involved, such as Cisco Systems. ISPs that do not own a network can purchasing wholesale access to the necessary infrastructure from an owner-operator, and then offer it at retail to end-users. For ISPs using this business model, key suppliers are BT and other network owners.While it is unlikely that ISPs of either type will integrate backwards, since the upstream businesses are very different to their own, most network owner-operators have already integrated forwards into the retail ISP market, and are competing directly with ISPs that do not own networks. Network manufacturers are not completely reliant on the ISP market for their revenues, as they can also operate in markets such as corporate intranet; network owners usually generate revenue from telephone services and their own ISP retail business as well as wholesale Internet access.Overall, supplier power is strong. Threats of New Entrants: Strong The threat of new entrants is strong. New players will be attracted by the continuing strong growth rates in this market. The physical infrastructure needed is usually already available. For example, a cable TV company can move into the Internet access market by making use of the cable network it has already installed; while players without their own infrastructure can buy access to telecom networks.This reduces the capital requirements for market entry Ã¢â¬â although customer demand for ever-increasing bandwidth may mean that investment in infrastructure will be needed for future growth. Retaliation in terms of price competition is very likely in this market, and new entrants need to differentiate themselves from incumbents Ã¢â¬ â not an easy task when selling a commoditized service that can be specified completely with a few parameters such as bandwidth and downtime. Threats of Substitute: WeakThe threat of substitutes is weak: the Internet has developed as rapidly as it has because it is itself a substitute for many other services and products. These include traditional forms of advertising, news providers, music (and increasingly video) physical media such as CDs and DVDs, Ã¢â¬Ëbricks and mortar' outlets for supplying goods and services, and communication services such as mail and telephony. The benefits of these older substitutes are assessed as small, as the Internet alternatives have clearly demonstrated their popularity with consumer and corporate customers.However, to take two examples, for consumers with concerns over the security of online financial transactions, or businesses who wish to advertise to segments of the population who are not online, the older substitutes may retain advantages. B ritish TelecomÃ¢â¬â¢s Competitive Position A companyÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy consists of the competitive efforts and business approaches that managers employ to please customers, compete successfully, and achieve organizational objectives.It represents managementÃ¢â¬â¢s answers to such fundamental business questions as whether to concentrate on a single business or build a diversified group of business, which cater to a broad range of customer or focus on a particular market niche. A strategy thus reflects the managerial choices among alternatives and signals organizational commitment to particular products, markets, competitive approaches, and ways of operating the enterprise (Hooley et al. 2001). Sustainable competitive advantage as argued by John Kay is only achieved if the company has distinctive capabilities or resources that its competitors does not have.Kay (1999) argues that resources can be considered as unique or reproducible. A unique resource, for example the brand name of BT, can be considered as an important asset that can be a basis of sustainable competitive advantage. A reproducible resource and capabilities, on the other hand, pertains to assets that can be easily copied or reproduced by competitors and does not offer the company the distinctive competitive advantage. A good example of a reproducible resource would be the process of delivery voice calls.Many are now able to voice call services on their own and can learn the process more very quickly and easily; however, what differentiate BT is its extensive network infrastructure which it has built over the years to gain scale economies, and build on their strategic brand name (Kay 1999). In understanding the sources of competitive advantage, Hooley & Broderick (1998) introduced two fundamental approach in creating sustainable competitive advantage based from Micheal PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s Competitive Advantage.Micheal Porter suggests that companies undertake two roads towards establishing itself as a market leader. First, a company can position itself through cost leadership or differentiation. The former strategy requires that a company to operate more efficiently, thereby lowering its operational cost relative to its competitors. The later strategy requires that a company identify a resource that add value for the customer and modify the product or service in a way that will entice the customer to buy (Hooley & Broderick 1998).Hunt and Morgan (1996) recommends a resource-based model as a way to investigate competency and superior firm performance through a more intimate integration of organizational theory, marketing and economics. Furthermore, strategic resource improves a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s performance over time. If a firm mobilizes unique and immobile resources to create sustainable competitive advantage, then a firm can enjoy generating greater economic rents than competitors in the industry.In addition, the resource-based theory asserts that distinctive competencies of a fir m can ultimately result to superior outcomes and performance (Luo, Sivakumar, & Luo 2005). Kay (1999) also defined the three primary sources of sustainable competitive advantage as: (1) the marketÃ¢â¬â¢s barriers to entry; (2) a unique firm history and experience which has transformed the firm and industry; (3) the tacitness of relationship with customers or suppliers. In this section, we assess BTÃ¢â¬â¢s competitive position in the market using SWOT Analysis to identify its sources for competitive advantage. SWOT AnalysisAs we have analyzed the competing forces that could affect the overall success of BT in the fixed line telecom industry in UK, we also recognize the need to be able to identify the strength and weakness of BT as well as external opportunities, and threats. Exhibit 3 illustrates a SWOT analysis of BT strategic capabilities. The value of the SWOT analysis is its ease of use, its simplicity, and its flexibility. In addition, SWOT analysis allows the synthesis and integration of various types of information which are generally known but still provides the possibility to organize and synthesize recent information as well.The insight to be gained in performing the SWOT analysis is the understanding of the core competency of the company that would give it a distinctive competitive advantage over its rival. More importantly, it provides the groundwork on (1) how the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy can be matched to both its resource capabilities and its market opportunities, and (2) how urgent it is for the company to correct which particular resource deficiency and guard against to particular
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
Glioblastoma, which is besides known as spongioblastoma multiforme ( GBM ) is the most common signifier of malignant encephalon tumor of grownups. It is the highest class ( grade IV ) astrocytomas, tumours that start in glial cells in the encephalon [ 1,25-27,36 ] . Each twelvemonth, about five out of 100 000 people populating in United State are diagnosed with this disease [ 28,29 ] . GBM normally affects people who older than 50 old ages old although the disease can happen in patients from all age group [ 2,25,28 ] . Patients suffer ictus, concern, ocular perturbation and sometimes personality alterations which can do great emotional hurt [ 25,30,31 ] . The average endurance of GBM patients is hapless, with about 12 to 14 months [ 7 ] . At this minute, the exact causes of GBM still remain vague to the scientists.Figure 1 GBM tumor is normally found in frontal and temporal lobe.Beginning: hypertext transfer protocol: //ebsco.smartimagebase.com/brain-tumor/view-item? ItemID=4027Accum ulative Word Count: 131Possible TreatmentsSurgerySurgery is normally the initial measure to handle GBM by taking every bit much tumor as possible. It is non healing but aims to cut down the tumor Ã¢â¬Ës size every bit much as possible so that other therapies right after the surgery can be more effectual. Furthermore, surgical resection Acts of the Apostless to alleviate hydrops by debulking tumor every bit good as being a alleviative intervention for neurologic symptoms such as ictus activity [ 7 ] . The surgery includes standard surgical process craniotomy which removes a subdivision of skull to expose the encephalon underneath in order to unclutter the tumor. Besides, patients may choose to undergo optical maser microsurgery or supersonic aspiration to hold their tumors removed.2134Figure 2 Craniotomy hypertext transfer protocol: //ebsco.smartimagebase.com/surgical-craniotomy/view-item? ItemID=40345 Accumulative Word Count: 242Radiation TherapyNormally, radiation therapy ( RT ) is administered instantly after surgery. It works chiefly by damaging the Deoxyribonucleic acid of tumor cells, killing any residuary tumor cells after surgical remotion of the tumour [ 3-6,32 ] . A research has shown that the average endurance clip has increased from 17 hebdomads ( treated with conventional attention ) to 37.5 hebdomads when the GBM patients were treated with RT entirely while combination of BNCU ( carmustine ) and RT produced a 40.5 hebdomad average endurance [ 11 ] . Table 1 Randomized surveies of post-operative radiation compared with no radiation therapy in malignant gliomaa [ 23 ]Study [ Ref. ]Study groupRadiation dose Gy/ no. of fractionNo. of patients randomized ( analyzed )Median endurance ( hebdomads )Overall endurance P valueShapiro et al. , 1976 [ 62 ] Connecticut RT + CTÃ¢â¬â60 16 ( 16 ) 17 ( 17 ) 30 44.5 NR Not important Andersen, 1978 [ 1 ] Surgery entirely RTÃ¢â¬â45/25 57 ( 57 ) 51 ( 51 ) 15b 23b Ã¢â¬ ¹0.005 Survival at 6 months Walker et al. , 1978 [ 78 ] vitamin D Surgery entirely RTÃ¢â¬â50-60/25-35 42 ( 31 ) 93 ( 68 ) 14c 36c 0.001 Walker et al. , 1980 [ 79 ] vitamin D Connecticut RTÃ¢â¬â60/30-35 111 ( 111 ) 118 ( 118 ) 31 37 0.003 Kristiansen et al. , 1981 [ 36 ] vitamin D Surgery entirely RT + / Ã¢â¬â ConnecticutÃ¢â¬â45/25 38 ( 38 ) 80 ( 80 ) 23 47 NR Significant Sandberg-Wollheim et al. , 1991 [ 60 ] Connecticut RT + CTÃ¢â¬â58/27 87 ( 87 ) 84 ( 84 ) 42 62 0.028 a CT, chemotherapy ; NR, non reported ; RT, radiation therapy. B Calculated from survival curve. 500 Multi-arm survey that included a radiation plus chemotherapy arm. For both surveies by Walker et al. , merely information from the radiation entirely arm are shown in Table 2. Kristiansen et Al. reported combined informations from the radiation entirely arm and the radiation plus chemotherapy arm. In each of these surveies, there was a important survival benefit favouring radiation plus chemotherapy compared with no radiation therapy but no important difference in endurance between radiation entirely and radiation plus chemotherapy ( informations non shown ) . degree Celsiuss Merely consequences for the evaluable patients were reported ( 31 patients in the surgery entirely arm and 68 patients in the RT arm ) . Accumulative Word Count: 329 RT is normally administered through external beam radiation but internal radiation called Brachytherapy is besides possible. Each manner differs in how the radiation beginnings are delivered to the tumour [ 4-6,32 ] . Using IMRT ( Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy ) , a machine such as additive gas pedal delivers precise high-energy radiation doses ( eg: X raies ) to the tumor accurately and kills the affected cells [ 6,33 ] . Most patients will have the intervention for five to seven hebdomads [ 6,32,34 ] . Typically, around 6000 to 6500 units of radiation are delivered over seven hebdomads [ 6 ] . In contrast, brachytherapy topographic point the radiation beginnings every bit near as possible to the targeted cells in shorter clip comparison to external radiation. It consists of radioactive implants in the signifier of catheters or seeds which has impermanent radioactive beginnings in the tumor [ 8 ] . Figure 3 Brachythrapy hypertext transfer protocol: //ebsco.smartimagebase.com/brachytherapy/view-item? ItemID=24923 Besides, stereotactic radiosurgery, a noninvasive method of presenting an intense and focused dosage of radiation to a little country can be used for GBM excessively. Treatment dose is individualized but the typical dosage is about 2500 units of radiation per intervention [ 6 ] . Other signifiers of radiation intervention such as installing of inflatable balloon incorporating liquid radiation or interpolation of monoclonal antibodies tagged with radioactive substances may be used [ 8 ] . Accumulative Word Count: 519ChemotherapyChemotherapy may be given after surgical resection and radiation. In this therapy, chemotherapeutic drugs play an of import function in impacting retroflexing cells by damaging the Deoxyribonucleic acid of these cells. The most normally used drugs are carmustine ( BNCU ) , lomustine ( CCNU ) , temozolomide ( Temodar ) and procarbazine. They are classified as alkylating agents which are DNA-damaging drugs. These drugs alkylate the Deoxyribonucleic acid in the tumor cells, doing the dual strands to be cross-linked to each other in an inappropriate manner. This thereby, blocks DNA reproduction and bit by bit leads to cell decease [ 4,5,8 ] . Soon, Gliadel Wafer Ã¢â¬â a biodegradable wafer soaked with BNCU is prevailing among the interventions. This is done by engrafting wafers in the pit after surgical remotion of the tumor. The wafers so easy let go of high concentrations of BCNU straight into the tumour country over a period of 2-3 hebdomads. Gliadel does non supply a remedy for GBM but is believed to be capable of protracting endurance. Apart from that, temozolomide is more frequently administered orally on monthly rhythm for 6-12 months after surgery and radiation as a care therapy [ 6,8,28,29 ] . Traditional chemotherapy drugs can be effectual, but most of them do non separate between healthy and tumour cells, thereby forestalling the disposal of high doses to kill the unnatural cells. What is more, their generalised toxicity can do terrible side effects. Targeted therapy drugs like Avastin ( bevacizumab ) are more precise than some chemotherapy drugs and tend to hold fewer side effects. It has been approved by FDA in 2009 as a new biologic drug to handle GBM. Avastin acts chiefly as an angiogenesis inhibitors by decelerating the growing of new blood vass environing the tumor. It selectively blocks VEGF to suppress the activation of VEGF receptors tyrosine kinases VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 [ 13-15 ] . There are some surveies to turn out that approximately 20-30 % patients with GBM do react to the drugs [ 27 ] . Accumulative Word Count: 823AGraph 1 Kaplan-Meier endurance curves for patients treated with steroids and ( A ) resective surgery merely, ( B ) resective surgery and radiation therapy and ( C ) resective surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy. [ 12 ]BacillusCAccumulative Word Count: 848Social and Economic DeductionsThe trouble to digest with the side effects of the medicines such as sleepiness and hair loss may do GBM patients to experience down and hurt. They may be easy frustrated by concerns they suffer often or experience suffering and hopeless after the diagnosing [ 34 ] . This could take to serious societal impact and would worry the people around them. Furthermore, most of the patients find it hard to return to work due to decrease in productiveness. A study has shown that with 91 % patients were employed before diagnosing, merely 33 % of them continue working after interventions. While health professionals who were still working experience employment alterations such as taking leave of absence to be with their loved 1s for interventions or taking on extra paid work might experience stressed and have to fight difficult to get by with the tough life [ 9 ] . In order to run a normal life, patients require undergo a plentifulness of interventions including hospitalization after surgery which would do great fiscal load. It is estimated that cost of GBM interventions ranged from Ãâ 10 893 to Ãâ 125 275 [ 22 ] . Trouble of obtaining insurance makes the status even worse. Drugs that are necessary for GBM interventions are expensive and are normally administered over long period of clip. All this becomes a beginning of depression which affects non merely the patients but their households and friends [ 9 ] . The return of GBM after conventional therapy is inevitable. This so creates unstoppable medical crisis every bit good as fiscal hurt to the patients and their households. Accumulative Word Count: 1084Benefits and HazardsI believe a combination of surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy is the most effectual intervention for GBM presently. In malice of its forecast has remained hapless for the last few decennaries, patients do acquire better after adhering to this standard therapy. Although GBM can non be cured, the patients had have their survival clip prolonged, acquiring a opportunity to pass their last few months with their loved 1s in a meaningful manner [ 34 ] . Nevertheless, the interventions do enforce distressing side effects to human wellness. Despite killing tumour cells, alkylating agents used are considered toxic, ensuing in suppression or lowering of blood counts. They have been associated with important sickness, hair loss, weariness and sterility [ 5 ] . High doses of BNCU may take to damage and marking of the lungs while procarbazine can do raging concern, purging and numbness. Hence, doses of drugs administered have to be carefull y monitored by doctor to avoid taking to unwanted effects. Recently invented drugs temozolomide, has comparatively mild side effects but they are still inevitable [ 6 ] . Meanwhile, hazard of developing acute leukaemia old ages subsequently is increased when patients are exposed to alkylating agents [ 5 ] . Avastin, a freshly developed drug, provides a more effectual therapy for GBM. However, it potentially creates fatal toxicity, doing the late closed surgical lesion interruptions down. Some claim that the development of toxicity by avastin may shorten endurance in some patients when it is added to radiotherapy and temozolomide. Thus, researches on the effectivity and safety of use of avastin should be carried on continually until desirable consequences are obtained [ 20 ] . In add-on, the return of the tumor is ineluctable, with the average endurance rate of patients who relapse runing from 3-6 months despite aggressive intervention [ 10 ] . Patients may develop the feeling that the medicines are useless or may give up because of the intolerable side effects and the unstoppable backsliding of disease. This will take to non-adherence to therapy and increase the hazard of mortality. However, in my sentiment, the multimodal treatments I discuss above are still considered the best solution for GBM as they outweigh the hazards by protracting the patients Ã¢â¬Ë survival clip. Accumulative Word Count: 1432Alternate TreatmentsGene therapyAnother promising attack of handling GBM is cistron therapy. Herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase/ganciclovir ( HSV-tk/GCV ) has evolved as a cytotoxic cistron therapy. In this instance, recombinant adenoviral vectors are used to give favorable consequences. Adenoviral HSV-tk ( AdHSV-tk ) is able to assail the residuary dividing tumour cells while go forthing the non-dividing nerve cells unharmed. What Ã¢â¬Ës more, it can destruct the malignant neoplastic disease cells through bystander- consequence [ 19 ] . HSV-tk first converts GCV to GCV-monophosphate [ 16,17 ] . Then, cellular kinases farther convert this merchandise to GCV-triphosphate which is a hapless substrate for uninterrupted DNA elongation due to the lacking of 3 Ã¢â¬Ë hydroxyl group that is needed to organize phosphodiester bond in chain-elongation-reaction. Ultimately, nonfunctional Deoxyribonucleic acid fragments are formed, triping programmed cell death in malignant neoplastic disease cells [ 18 ] . Nowadays, AdHSV-tk /GCV is going preferred comparisons to conventional radiation therapy and chemotherapy due to its fewer inauspicious effects. Figure 4 The rule of HSV-tk/GCV cistron therapy. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.gtmb.org/VOL4A/GTMBVOL4AHTML/23_Adachi_files/image001.gif Accumulative Word Count: 1575 Table 2 Surveies by Sandmair et Al. and Immonen et Al. demo a singular protraction of endurance in patients treated with AdHSV-tk [ 19 ] . Patients Vector Phase Gene Transfer Method Adverse Effectss Survival ( Months ) Response
Monday, July 29, 2019
Marketing - Essay Example Concept of Marketing The marketing concept can be described as the achievement of corporate goals through meeting and exceeding customer needs and expectations better than the competition or competitors. This can be done by three steps: 1. Customer orientation Ã¢â¬â the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s main focus should be on its target market i.e. customer satisfaction rather than solely improving costs and methods for the company itself 2. Integrated effort Ã¢â¬â fulfilling customer satisfaction is not a one-man job, it requires a management team and workforce with the common motive to achieve this task through production, finance, research and development 3. Goal achievement Ã¢â¬â for integrated work to run smoothly and successfully, the management must have strong belief in the fact that corporate goals can be achieved through consumer satisfaction. Marketing Mix A marketing mix is a company strategy that helps boost a company customers, profits and innovations with the help of four ste ps (known as the 4 PÃ¢â¬â¢s) i.e. product, price, promotion, and place. These 4 Ps are the key decision elements that marketers must follow in order to achieve the wants and needs of their clientele above their competitors. This marketing mix however has been extended to 7 Ps with the three additions of people, progress and physical evidence due to the rapid growth of the service industries. The emphasis of every individual element varies depending on the commodities the organization offers. Product. The product decision includes choosing which goods and services the company is willing and able to produce and supply to its target customers. This includes product creation as well as integration and development where by the products supplied and new and improved with the advancements in technology and taste. This phase also includes the branding image of the company i.e. its name, packaging and promotions and offers. It seems that Britvic seems to rely on the porterÃ¢â¬â¢s model o f differentiation to keep its products relevant to the UKÃ¢â¬â¢s beverages market. Hence there is more focus on offering the customers a good variety and availability of product, importantly, along with a focus on development of the products to keep the customers interested rather than offer the highest standards of quality (taste) or uniqueness of product and taste. This might be because a large part of BritvicÃ¢â¬â¢s business activity consists of distributing drinks of established brands such as PepsiCo and hence the company can choose to rely on provision of quality service to other businesses to maintain relevance to the consumer market rather than on maintenance of quality. Placement. Placement deals with decision making regarding distribution channels. Key management decisions stress upon locations of its outlets, transportation facilities, and inventory levels of stock and stock needing to be reordered. The main goal is to ensure products and services are available in the desired and sufficient quantities, at the desired time durations and venue. These distribution channels consist of organizations such as retailers and wholesalers who act as an intermediary through which commodities pass on their way to customers. Producers need to manage their relationships with these organizations in order for them to provide cost-effective access to that specific firm and the market they belong to. They also need to be familiar with new methods of
Sunday, July 28, 2019
Assigment two - Essay Example Conducting a training needs analysis significantly helps in the process of evaluating the lacking areas of the teams and individuals of an organization and can significantly lead to the process of development of skills of the employees, thereby increasing their individual productivity as well as the productivity of the entire organization on a whole. Training needs analysis is increasingly considered as a highly important tool for planning and management as it aids in the process of growth and development of the individuals and the organization (Drummond, 2008, p. 5 - 6) Talking in terms of Wal-Mart, it can be said that since Wal-Mart is a global organization, with interests and stakeholders present in major and emerging markets of the globe, there are some specific areas of development that Wal-Mart can focus on for the process of providing better opportunities towards individual development and resources on a global note. The most important areas of development that WalÃ¢â¬âMart can focus on at the present moment are the processes of educating and developing the front line associates in the emerging markets to go for better customer engagements as well as imparting relevant product knowledge and required rack arrangement. Another important area where Wal-Mart can conduct a training needs analysis is the process of evaluating the need of technological and process developments in the emerging markets which can in return lead to achieving of better production and efficiency. The organization also needs to conduct training need evaluations of the customers in the emerging markets for the purpose of generating better responses in the e-retailing formats. Also, the company needs to conduct the analysis for the purpose of assessing the gap of technology expertsÃ¢â¬â¢ team of the organization and their efficiency in generating the valuable insights from customer information by using data analytics technology. 2. It is of considerable importance to state that Wal -Mart is a global organization, which increasingly focuses on generating extreme value for customer through its product and service offerings (Annual Report, 2012, p.4). Hence, its key strategies are more focused in generating more value to the customer, while increasingly going through various evolutionary phases and individual development techniques of the internal stakeholders of the organization. Training Need Analysis for Wal-Mart is being provided through the following format Training Need Type of Training For Whom Objectives Front line associates of the various Wal-Mart outlets in some of the key emerging markets needs training in regards to style and fashion of involving in customer engagements. Role Playing Front line associates in Wal-Mart stores located in key emerging markets. To provide a superior shopping performance to the customers by providing high level of customer satisfaction through customer engagements. Front line associates of the Wal-Mart outlets in the key e merging markets needs training for rack arrangement as well as developing product knowledge. On job training Front line associates in Wal-Mart stores located in key emerging markets. To enable the front line as
Saturday, July 27, 2019
The Influence of Age on the Perception of Decriminalizing Marijuana - Research Paper Example Cannabis refers to products which may be obtained from the hemp plant, which is scientifically known as cannabis. Marijuana is obtained from cannabis(Jenkins, 2006). Pacula, et al. (2005) defined the term decriminalization almost literally as the Ã¢â¬Å"removal in the criminal status of cannabis possession offensesÃ¢â¬ (P. 348). However, Pacula, et al. (2005) observed that decriminalization remained undefined in the field of international policy. It is also worth mentioning at this point that a number of countries and sub-jurisdictions who were publicized to have decriminalized marijuana actually just reduced the penalties for offenses pertaining to possession of marijuana or cannabis for amounts specified by law (Pacula, 2005). The following studies were reviewed either for their direct or indirect bearing on the topic of this study: McCoun et al. (2009) suggested that the effect of the law on decriminalization of marijuana varies among age groups. In adult populations, the law h as a significant effect on marijuana use. Inversely, youth populations appear to be unfazed by regulations and sanctions (as cited in McCoun, et al. 2009). McCoun, et al. (2009) also argued that the impact of legal sanctions differs significantly depending on the age group being studied. Results of their analysis of Australian cannabis consumption show that the youth have a lower tendency to be swayed by legal sanctions. In contrast, adult subjects are largely influenced by government policies. Ã The authors expressed concern about immediately concluding that the youth are less sensitive to marijuana-related arrests because young people are more impulsive and prone to risky behavior. The McCoun, et al. (2009) study has the most bearing on the current study in the sense that the study tackled decriminalization of marijuana and that the effect of age was studies as a predictor variable. However, the McCoun (2009) work is different from the present study since the effect of age on pr ohibition was studied, instead of the effect of age on perceptions about decriminalizing marijuana as proposed in this study. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Reyda and Farley (2006) supports the popular notion about young people and marijuana use. The authors cited evidence revealed in their study that vulnerability of adolescents to be influenced to use marijuana is lessened as they grow older. In addition, it is shown that adolescents are prone to miscalculating risks and developing biases in terms of decision making and judgment than when they grow older. Reyda and FarleyÃ¢â¬â¢s work has indirect bearing on the study, but nonetheless, their findings bolster this researcherÃ¢â¬â¢s position that college students as young people would be supportive of decriminalizing marijuana since marijuana use is tagged to younger people. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Meanwhile, Fetherston and Lenton (2005) investigated public perception on the legalization of cannabis by conducting randomized ph one surveys on 809 residents of Western Australia. The respondents were asked regarding their views on cannabis legalization, attitudes towards a proposed legislative model, and their opinion of its perceived effects. Initial participant responses show that majority of respondents share a negative view regarding cannabis. However, most participants consider criminal sanctions against cannabis use as inappropriate and ineffective.
Friday, July 26, 2019
Leadership Style - Term Paper Example He is an American-born hip hop star who established his own music production company in 1993 in New York City. Sean Combs is known for growing and mentoring artists such as Mary J. Blige and more in his company, Bad Boy Entertainment (Clifford, 2014). In this case, Sean Combs is portrayed as a charismatic leader because he inspires artists and motivates them to progress in their singing careers. At Howard University, Combs reveals his love for business practices when he holds entertainment activities in order to get monetary returns. His company, Bad Boy Entertainment, made billions of money in the late 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s as he sold his music recordings across the world. He portrays entrepreneurial success due to traits such as courage, intelligence and persuasiveness. Sean Ã¢â¬ËDiddyÃ¢â¬â¢ Combs was raised in a middle class family in Harlem, New York. He shows his determination to achieve global change by educating the youth. In his messages, he states that the youth should be given opportunities to pursue their dreams so that they can become the CEOs in the future (Clifford, 2014). According to Neider, (2002), the great man theory states that great leaders are born, but, not made. These theories can be used to analyze Sean Ã¢â¬ËDiddyÃ¢â¬â¢ Combs since he seems to have possessed some leadership qualities from birth. The theories portray leaders as heroic and with strong personalities. Today, Sean Ã¢â¬ËDiddyÃ¢â¬â¢ Combs is a successful leader particularly, in his multi- billion company, Bad Boys Entertainment (Clifford, 2014). Although, he comes from a poor background, he seems to have been destined to rise in leadership even before he was born because he has established wide range of businesses and initiatives that have registered great success. He has established businesses, which deal with music recording, publishing, as well as, film and television production. He seems to be more of a charismatic leader because he is gifted and intelligent both in
Thursday, July 25, 2019
Llean Implementation Using VSM and Simulation - Assignment Example Thus, this report will be an attempt towards depicting the use of the Lean manufacturing technique for optimizing the supply chain of ACW. Technology drives industry. This is true for industrial sectors especially those belonging to the developed economies of the world. Until the last decade, industries in the United States and Europe (which were some of the most heavily industrialized countries of the world) were so heavily dependent on technological Research & development so much so that a major chunk of companies' budget used to be allocated exclusively for R&D purposes. But, the most glaring phenomenon was that there were no research initiatives in the direction of management let alone waste management. Here waste must not be confused with physical waste, as the following sections will go on to depict. It was not until two decades ago that manufacturing industries realized their folly. They had learnt an important lesson from their fellow counterparts in Japan who had successfully implemented & popularized the use of "Just in Time" policies. The "Just in Time" policy was a conglomeration or in other words, a fusion of the concepts of mass production and scientific management methodologies. ... With the passage of time, the concept of lean manufacturing has gained immense popularity with its varied application in fields ranging from mass production to the services industry. Thus, lean methodologies have been successfully implemented in many disciplines.If one were to look down at history towards various sectors of the industry, it can be understood as to how lean principle have come into being. The roots of lean come from the word-CUTTHROAT COMPETITION. Since the 1970s, regardless of the nature or the services provided by the industry, the emphasis is laid more on how fast can the final product be delivered with optimum quality. If one were to look at Dell's strategy, it would be imperative that dell manufactures custom desktops in less than a week so as to remain a step ahead of its competitors. FedEx has been known to deliver packages within a day and this is the reason for the company's huge customer base and its dominance in the courier industry. Thus, their main strate gy is to think on the basis of adding value to the supply chain, which in managerial jargon, would be known as Lean thinking. Under the lean strategy, the industry strives to identify critical elements connected to the industry that add value to the product along with minimizing the production time.The same is the case with the company that is under focus as far as this report is concerned. The company here is called ACW that is based in Tonypandy. The main objective of this report would be to analyze the current state of workflow using some popular methods under the lean manufacturing techniques and thereupon propose further strategies and changes in order to optimize the work processes further. But before that, a major
Why, despite Seemingly Copious Sources, Is Our Knowledge of Celtic Mythology So Fragmentary - Essay Example The Romans considered their Celtic neighbours to be barbarians, but their observations provide much of our body evidence in the study ofÃ mythology, in particular Julius Caesar, Lucan and Posidonius (Brezina, 2008, p.11). The two cultures co-existed but often clashed, as they were built on entirely different beliefs, traditions and values (Aldhouse-Green, 1998, p. 8). Furthermore, their relationship was also marked by conflict; the Romans successfully conquered Celtic Britain in the first-century, only to have their capital sacked by the Celts two centuries later (Brezina, 2008, p. 7). Consequently, historians such as Aldhouse-Green, have warned of the problems of using Roman sources as evidence. She argues that that there is a real danger of "bias distortion, misunderstanding and admission" which will affect the authenticity and usefulness of their opinions and observations. Classical writers may well have sensationalisedÃ or deliberately selected aspects of Celtic behaviour a nd ideas to create the image of an "uncivilised" race, and thus add to their own sense of superiority (1998. p. 8). The Romans may well have Ã¢â¬Å"singled outÃ¢â¬ or exaggerated particular Celtic ideas and beliefs which seemed alien to them. Brezina has commented that they offer Ã¢â¬Å"confusedÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"fragmentaryÃ¢â¬ accounts of the gods especially as they seemed very strange to the Romans ( 2008, p. 11). Their accounts also present difficulties for the historian because they employed Roman terminology when describing Celtic religion. This further compounds the difficulties of interpretation (Maier, 1997, p. 24). The second type of source to be discussed come from the Middle Ages and were compiled throughout Britain. Once again, the historian is immediately confronted with a problem which potentially affects their reliability and authenticity; the influence of Christianity (Aldhouse-Green, 1998, p. 9). Maier argues that this influence means that such accounts are n ot a true reflection of Ã¢â¬Å"pre-Christian mythologyÃ¢â¬ and should actually be viewed as a Ã¢â¬Å"creative interpretationÃ¢â¬ . To be able to use them correctly also requires an excellent knowledge of Medieval Welsh and Irish sources, and a constant reviewing when new material is discovered.
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
See assessment criteria below - Essay Example For many years the theology of forgiveness was just that a theological concept, as this research will try and show. However, as the purpose of this research has stated, forgiveness is needed to heal mentally and physically because it is intertwined within many other theories in health care, be it mental health or traditional health care. In conclusion, the research defines that compassion, forgiveness, kindness, and understanding are all societal emotions that fit well into the treatment of mental health care and of which promote a better well defined individual through the treatment process. Before the 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s the theology of forgiveness was not very central to the aspect of mental health care but in the past decade many mental health care providers have realized this societal emotion plays a dramatic role in many of the models of mental health. The idea of Spirituality, Physical Well-Being, and Philosophical thought all apparently have a part in the treatment program in mental health care, and the concept of forgiveness is the primary idea in this care paradigm (Scobie & Scobie 1998, p.374). The reason for this is quite logical, because it has been implemented to define sociological behavior as a state of mind affected by various emotions, and oneÃ¢â¬â¢s actions sometimes require the response of forgiveness in order for a patient or an individual out in society to be able to move past their adversities. If they can not do this then they tend to focus on the adverse elements surrounding them. Their personality, behavior, and physical well being gradually become more attuned to a negative pattern, which then leads to a situation where it becomes harder to provide essential mental health care to help them recover from their disorder. In recent years there has been an abundance of psychotherapeutic information written in regards to this basic theory. One must let go of
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
Corruption in the Teamsters Union - Essay Example (Myint, 2000), notes that the lack of Accountability, mingled with Economic Rent, here defined as a unique feature in a person which causes them to be at an ad vantage with the competitors, and Discretionary Powers, defined as the allowance for leaders to twist rules in their own way brings about corruption. Taking this in mind, most trade union members join the unions just their work rights insured. They hence don't give a keen thought to a leader's character as long as he or she is representing their rights well. Therefore, Trade Unions provide an even field for greedy men and women to propagate their activities without confrontation. Mismanagement and embezzlement of collective funds has led to the collapse of famous trade unions in several countries. This increasingly destructive vice has spurred an unprecedented input in research on the Causes, effects and cures of Corruption in Trade Unions. Surprisingly, the issues of corruption continue in increasing numbers. Nevertheless, we have a better knowledge and deeper understanding of the causes and effects of Corruption, not just in Trade Unions, but also in other agencies. For the sake of this paper, I will examine Corruption in the International Brotherhood of Teamsters (IBP), otherwise called the Teamsters Union. The findings and recommendations will represent the possibilities in other Trade Unions. Background Information The IBP is the largest private sector labor union in the United States and Canada. It comprises of over 2 million blue-collar workers in the public service and private sectors. Unlike most Unions, the IBP divides into many strong smaller unions, with their own leadership structures and policies. The International Body acts only as a coordinating agent. IBP history dates back to the early 1900s, being a merger of two former Trade Unions. The Teamsters' National Union is the Foundation stone for the Union. It was established by truck drivers and deliverymen from Chicago who had defied the A merican Federation of Labor (AFL) attempts of creating a teamsters trade union. The Union later merged with Team Drivers' International Union (The Union formed by AFL), to form the International Brotherhood of Teamsters (IBT). The new group now registered as an affiliated group to the AFL. At its inception, the Teamster Union aimed at ensuring fare working conditions for the members. Its leadership structure has smaller subsidiary groups called Locals. The Locals elect their own leaders who then elect the national leaders. The initial membership consisted of deliverymen using horse drawn vehicles, until in the 1930s after Truck Drivers surpassed them. From the onset of the Union, its mandate has been representing the rights of truck drivers, service deliverymen and other similar job groups. The Union has a great bargaining power, fueled by its large membership as well as its capacity to hamper the transportation of important goods. It has always been important to the AFL, for a stri ke by its members would hamper the movement of products throughout the nation. Inasmuch as, the numbers were important in ensuring a good bargaining power, the same was also a brooding ground for corrupt leaders. Most of its leaders are notorious in soliciting for bribes from
Monday, July 22, 2019
Non traditional threat to US Essay In my opinion the most pertinent Non-traditional threat to the US is the economy. It is the single most important, globalized, and un-accounted for problem in the US. The current problem is so bad that the US economy is days away from a (partial) default. This would be the first default since possibly the 1700s at the founding of the nation. The problem with this is the US green back is the reserve currency of the world (all or most investments are made in US dollars). If the US defaults it will cause a ripple effect that will make the 2008 global financial crisis look small in comparison to the lobal catastrophe that will occur. The reason most investments are in US dollars is because dollars have historically been the most stable currency in the modern age. The US defaulting on its debts has both internal and external effects. The total of US government debt is over $ 16. 9 trillion. (US Debt Clock) Of that debt, $ 4. 8 trillion is owned by governmental agencies. This includes agencies such as the social security (holds over $2. 5 trillion dollars). Of the public debt, foreign investors own $5. 7 trillion. Keep in mind this is Just the actual government debt; effects of a default would be uch bigger. The US reached its debt ceiling in 2012. The US constitution 14th Amendment, Section 4 directly forbids the government from defaulting on its debt. Thus to cope with the debt ceiling being reached the government has been taking extraordinary measures in order to pay their debts (for instance suspending investments on individual pension funds). When these measures are exhausted, the government will not bring on a global economic collapse as they default on all their bonds. They will Just be forced to balance the economy to match their spending with their collected revenue. This is a very different issue (still with its problems) to a full default. What is important is that a full default is likely to not happen. The brinksmanship between the rogue Republicans and the government would only threaten a technical default on the shortest-dated US government bonds, because their shorter lives mean their maturity date is nearer than the rest of the governments safe assets. The problem here, as ever, is not whether the federal government is able to repay the principle from these bonds, but the short-term methods used to make these repayments. The US treasury would still be seen as a safe investment, albeit in more economically uncertain times, and thus bonds would probably rise in price believe it or not, the US government 10-year bond decreased in price after news that the media reported a default was unlikely. Though we are quick to forget, there have been 17 government shutdowns between 1976-1996 and the debt ceiling is raised almost every year a full default never happens. This brinksmanship is historically common, and it is the media and politicians that fuel the political fire by indicating that this is the year where it will default.
Sunday, July 21, 2019
The Roles Of Mainstream Media The roles of mainstream media have been widely speculated. Some say the mainstream media act as a tool used to relay the government or corporate propaganda (Galt, 2011: http://johngaltfla.com/wordpress/2011/08/25/words-that-merriam-webster-dictionary-left-out-of-the-2011-u-s-edition/) while others say it simply transmits information that is of the interest of the public. However, many skeptical scholars unanimously agreed that the mainstream media is a media organ that censor the dissemination of news by distorting information through the use of bias photos, placement bias and other forms of deception that mislead viewers into drawing incorrect conclusions (conservapedia, 2012). All in all, mainstream media are generally being perceived as an avenue for the government or controlling group to push out their policies and assume that the idea proposed generally reflects the prevailing thoughts of the majority. Diverse opinions on the effects of mainstream media The history of mass media can be traced back thousands years ago. Studies after studies reviewed that the media possess unfathomable effects. Some scholars perceive media as an invasive, malignant and cancerous force, having direct effects on viewers (manipulate them) while some scholars such as Paul Lazarsfeld believed that media had rarely direct influence on individuals. The introduction of Mass Society Theory, Magic Bullet Theory, Middle-range Theory, Critical Theory and many more further reinforces the idea that media plays an integral part in our lives, although some theories have been rejected as time goes by. Far-sighted figure such as Adolf Hitler foresees the potential of media and thus, uses the radio (a mainstream media) to influence peoples belief and ultimately pushes them to act in accordance to his whims and fancies. Although Hitlers action is one with ill-intentioned, it has proven to the world the capability mainstream media. Mainstream media is comparatively more influential than alternative media as it is the most sought after media by the majority and thus, more people are more susceptible to mainstream media. Ownership of mainstream media in Malaysia Once you understand how powerful the media can be, it is not surprising to see media literates fighting over the ownership of media. The notion Those who own the media own the minds of the people extracted from Karl Marxs greatest ideology once again reinforces how capable media is. With this in mind, the Malaysia government adopted the authoritarian theory by being involved directly in the States media ownership. Many media outlets are owned by individuals who have connection to the ruling coalition BN. The ruling party justify their ownership in the mainstream media as an effort aligned with the New Economic Policy that aims to assure the participation of Bumiputera in mainstream industry and to ensure the economic growth of the nation under the leadership of the elite group. The government or ruling party acquires or controls these media companies through various investment arms. The following list out some of the ownership of the mainstream media in Malaysia: In the newspaper industry, the New Straits Times Press (NSTP) that publishes the New Straits Times, Berita Harian and Harian Metro is a subsidiary of the Fleet Holdings, an investment arm of UMNO while The Star newspaper turns out to be one of MCA most invested property (Zaharom Nain, Mustafa K. Anuar, 2008). In the TV sector, TV3, Malaysias first private TV station too is under the control of 4 prominent political figures, known to be closely related to the previous Deputy Prime Minister Anwar Ibrahim (Zaharom Nain, Mustafa K. Anuar, 2008). Meanwhile the Natseven TV Sdn. Bhd. or commonly known as NTV7 is owned by the Chairman of ENCORP Group, Datuk (Dr. Effendi Norwawi) who happened to be Malaysias former Minister of Agriculture. Furthermore, the government also extended their reach in the satellite broadcasting field as Astro and Measat 1 are jointly owned by the Binariang Sdn. Bhd., headed by T. Ananda Krishnan, a manufacturing and horse racing tycoon who is a close friend of the former Prime Minister, Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohamad (The Star, 9/1/1996) Based on the list of ownership mainstream media in Malaysia, it is evident that the Malaysia mainstream media has never gone out of the ruling coalitions sight. For the past 50 years, the media was and is still closely related to the local authority. This clearly shows that the mainstream media in Malaysia is closely related to the system of power and authority. Media is owned through political connection and that they have a say in the content of media by only allowing content that favours the ruling coalition. With ownership of media in hand, media has been regarded as the ultimate tool to reach out to mass audiences. Role of Malaysias mainstream media What is the role of mainstream media and how it operates lies significantly in the hands of the owner of that particular media. The trendsetter ultimately determines the direction of the mainstream media and its content. For instance, what it wants the media to show to the public and what it wants the media to do, i.e. promote government policies. In Malaysia, the mainstream media is a pro-government tool. Due to the polarized system, media operators are bound to abide to the higher management, in other words, the government. If they do not do so, they might face charges under the Sedition Act, Printing and Press Publication Act, Official Secret Act and other related laws that govern the interest of the governing elites. This modus operandi of mainstream media is to advocate the government in sending the nations messages across to the masses. top-down hierarchy has further inhibited the voices of the opposing party. The statement that mainstream media in Malaysia been perceived as an important agent of change for most of the governments policies is undoubtedly true. According to Zaharom Nain and Mustafa K. Anuar (2008) from the very first Malaysias newspaper, The Prince of Wales Gazette to the launching of Malaysias first broadcast satellite, Measat 1, the ownership of mainstream media never leaves from the sight of political figures. As such, the mainstream media has been fully utilized as a means to propagate the nations policies. From the NEP in 1969 to Look East Policy in the up till Vision 2020 and now the latest and most bandied about policy 1 Malaysia. Study reveals that media is the key player in portraying the image of 1Malaysia (Hanita Hassan, Hadina Habil, Noor Aireen Ibrahim). Further, in their research on the roles of media in realizing unity in diversity, they believe that media has a powerful capacity to educate the public on the importance of unity by promoting cross-cultural understanding, tolerance and acceptance of other cultures and religion, the media is thus is the perfect means of communication between the public and the government. 1 Malaysia 1 Malaysia concept was introduced by our sixth Prime Minister, YAB Dato Sri Najib Tun Razak on 16 September 2010. It is an on-going program where it involves all Malaysians to be united so that Malaysia can become a more harmonious, peaceful and efficient country. For this concept to be successful, it is important that all people cooperate as one but not as Sarawakian or Sabahan. 1 Malaysia concept must be applied and practiced all the time to ensure the values of acceptance, mutual understanding and the sense of belongings is engrained in each and every Malaysians mind. According to YAB Dato Sri Najib Tun Abdul Razak, the 1 Malaysia reflects how we see, how we act and how we think as Malaysians. As such, the government takes actions based on the needs of all ethnic groups in our country. No race shall be left out and all decisions made will not oppress one another. The concept of One Malaysia is based on the principle of People First, Performance Now, which mean the government will think from the peoples perspective, put the people as their first priority and only carry out programme that benefits the people. Performance now denotes that the government emphasizes on producing productive results, stresses on the workers efficiency in carrying out designated task as well as how fast and well government servants can complete a certain duty within a given timeframe. Furthermore, the One Malaysia concept also highlights 8 core values, namely perseverance (preserve harmony and peace), acceptance (show tolerance in other races lifestyle, religious practices and food), education (the learning of the national language), integrity (uphold the principle of being ethical and honest), meritocracy (appreciate talented personnel), humility (be humble at all times), loyalty (pledge to serve the country and its people) and the culture of excellence (rich in culture and show commitment beyond ordinary). One way of making the concept known is by the means of media. Media is the best tool to reach out to the public. According to S. Ramasubramaniam, he believed that the media has the potential to influence the desired racial attitudes especially for ethnics with minimal inter-racial direct contact. Ways to encourage the acceptance of 1Malaysia concept From NEP to Look East Policies to Vision 2020, these policies have been so widely published in almost all mainstream media. As mentioned above, mainstream media has been effectively made use of to spread the governments convictions, in this case, the 1Malaysia concept. They use several methods to coerce, pacify and encourage the public in general to accept 1Malaysia. use aggressively Repetition Lets take The Star as an example: The Star published all sorts of news revolving around the 1Malaysia concept in an exaggerating rate. For example, the establishment of 1Malaysia clinics, introduction of 1Malaysia aid schemes and the ceremony of 1Malaysia Family Day celebration. Besides, the pictures of the current Prime Minister Datuk Seri Najib Tun Razak have also been featured all the time, appearing in almost every day newspaper. On the other hand, TV stations such as RTM 1, RTM 2 and TV3 replay video clips and Public Service Announcement (PSA) pertaining to 1Malaysia concept. Even the radio stations shove the 1Malaysia concept down our throat by repeating the 1Malaysia song and messages. Frequent exposure to the 1Malaysia concept is a long term planning effort by the government. The media resorts to this method as they believe that through repetition, the public will be able to familiarize themselves with the concept and eventually take in the concept and further practice it in daily lives. Furthermore, the government uses the mainstream media because they believed in Rogers diffusion of innovation theory whereby people at large will eventually accept 1Malaysia concept after going through the 5 stages in the diffusion process. At first, the public will be aware of the 1Malaysia concept as it has been widely publicized in the mainstream media. However, being aware is simply not enough. The concept is to be believed will be accepted by a very small group of innovators who are usually heavy media users. This trend will later on be followed by opinion leaders (early adopters) who will try to comprehend the concept themselves and if these leaders find the concept beneficial, they will eventually encourage their friends (early majority) to accept the concept. The snowball effect continues through word of mouth and reaches the late majority. After an extensive period of time, even the laggards will join in the bandwagon. Therefore, 1Malaysia concept must be aired as frequently as possible and over a significant amount of time in order of this theory to sink into the minds of the people. Biased reporting Secondly, mainstream media are used to encourage the acceptance of 1Malaysia by portraying good sides of 1Malaysia concept. Parts of propaganda techniques are used in this context for example, the plain folks technique under special appeals. 1Malaysia concept has generally been regarded as an ideology that is created for the people. The notion We stand, we think and we act as Malaysians as envisaged by Datuk Seri Najib Tun Razak is commonly feature in the mainstream media. It carries the meaning that all people are together as one but not as separate individuals as Sarawakian or Sabahan. Besides, news featuring on citizens benefiting from the 1Malaysia aid scheme, 1Malaysia book vouchers, 1Malaysia housing loan and the list goes on and on is ubiquitous. Besides, the mainstream media also uses transfer to associate 1Malaysia concept to a peaceful, harmonious country whereby everyone is entitled to enjoy equality. In addition, mainstream media are also used testimonial technique by quoting prominent figures, usually political figures of the National Frontier who are in support of the 1Malaysia concept. Apart from that, based on priming effects, the media believes that how 1Malaysia concept is being presented in the media will eventually heighten the likelihood that people will develop similar thoughts about those things in the real world. To translate it into the present context, the mainstream medias constant portrayal of the positive side of 1Malaysia concept will indirectly shape how the public in general perceives 1Malaysia. Therefore, as long as the media portray 1Malaysia as something good, beneficial and serve the interest of the public, 1Malaysia concept will be widely acceptable by the citizens of Malaysia. Other than that, the mainstream media also try to coerce the public into accepting the 1Malalaysia concept through advertisements and video clips that uses the appeal to fear. Local TV stations such as TV1, TV2 and TV3 air the Bersih 2.0 turned riot video clip over and over again as if to convince Malaysians that this will not happen if we were to embrace the 1Malaysia concept. As such, it indirectly sends out a message that 1Malaysia acts as a reassurance that riots will not happen as 1Malaysia concept emphasizes extensively on maintaining peacefulness and harmony The mainstream media highlight the 1Malaysia concept during ethnic festivals. It symbolizes us getting together and form a bandwagon. This is what people are doing and so should you. It is another way of the government to urge the public to assimilate the 1Malaysia concept. This scenario display people get together to uphold the 1Malaysia concept. Excessive use of logo, slogan The mainstream media also uses the 1Malaysia logo and slogan in a wide-ranging manner. According to Hanita Hassan, Hadina Habil, Noor Aireen Ibrahim, symbols are strong identification marker as it symbolizes the 1Malaysia concept and symbols or visuals are to be believed that leaves generally a greater impact than words. Flipped through the newspaper for example and you will see plentiful of 1Malaysia logo together with its most bandied about slogan: People first, Performance now (translated from Rakyat didahulukan, Pencapaian diutamakan). By repeatingly use of these logo and slogan, it aims to intrude into our sense of vision, thus, leave behind an impact. Introduction of new sections Other than that, The Star even allocates a special section, dedicated to events or programmes concerning the 1Malaysia concept. Specialized website 1malaysia website catering for this Concept that is of utmost importance to the extent, they allocate a new section to cover on 1Malaysia news Uses Agenda-setting theory as benchmark- 1Malaysia is covered frequently and prominently, the public will regard the issue as important. Therefore, government take advantage / exploit the media to implant the concept into the peoples mind. Discussion Despite all the efforts by the mainstream media, the question whether the mainstream media has successfully generated the desired outcome of the 1Malaysia concept remains arguable. It cannot be denied that the mainstream media has effect on the citizens of Malaysia. It does leave impact behind but only to a certain extent. The effects of mainstream media generally affect the average people. These average people are usually made up of those who are illiterate, living in rural or maybe suburban area whereby they do not have adequate access to the outside world except amenities provided by the government. Since these people are being confined in the comfort zone built by the government, they will only see from the perspective of the government, which is how 1Malaysia concept benefits the people. In order for 1Malaysia concept to be accepted, people must first believe in the concept itself. Government try to persuade people into accepting the concept but is it the wisest choice to use media? In my opinion, I am not convinced as the media ownership are under the control of the government. Hence it does not give me a comprehensive, transparent report on what 1Malaysia concept is all about. All we see are the good sides of the 1Malaysia. All things are bound to have its pros and cons. It makes us question the integrity of the media Whatever is reported tend to be biased, Confrim the statemet above: (methodÃâÃ bias These owners of mainstream media are all political figures / associates who is closely related The truth monopolize the media industry. politically used-entity. Loses its credibility in reporting nothing but the truth.. 1 for people to trust them wan people to embrace the 1Malaysia and work together as one. Tyrannical make people question the integrity, accountability, reliability and credibility of media. How far can people trust the media which is publicly known to be government-sided? However, mainstream media is not almighty! Audiences are not passive in nature. They have a free choice. Even though Malaysians are deprived of their freedom of speech but we do have the freedom of choose. This freedom is further supported by the selective process whereby audiences can choose to expose to selected media outlet, choose to remember what is meaningful and the choice to alter the meaning to make to consistent with our pre-existing beliefs. Not do what they are told without comprehending Deemed to chg due to personal predisposition and strongly held beliefs. It is not necessary that they must be exposed to the mainstream media. With the advent of technology, the Internet has opened up a wide array of alternative media catering to different needs of the audience. This has allow audience to look for Malaysia Kini exposes the hidden truth behind government policies and several other socio-political blogger for example Marina Mahathir. So does the mainstream media achieved what it wanted frequently has put people off. Tend to switch channel. will be able to look elsewhere for sources of information. selective exposure, retention and perception Macroscopic political economy denotes that media institution has been turned into a selling commodity. ÃâÃ question put people off With ÃâÃ This is exactly what the Malaysian government is doing. Critical theory explains that the dominant group, i.e. government, maintain its status quo by exerting control on the people via Repressive State Approach (RSA) and Ideological State Approach (ISA) and media is a form of ISA Those who know operations of media not easily susceptible to the media as they themselves know the dirty tricks, laws, acts and vicious cycle repeating itself question the integrity, accountability, reliability and credibility of mainstream media. Question that govet intention. 1malayisa= media practices democratic-participant theory that advocates media support for cultural pluralism at a grass root level , to stimulate and empower pluralistic group. developmental theory call for government and the media to work hand-in-hand to ensure that media assist in the planned, beneficial development of a country. In short, mainstream media have effect on So back to the question: is I would say not. Unless the ownership of media is dissolved and is equally shared among the community, separate it as an independent entity, only then can be put our faith into the mainstream media. due to credibility, accountability, reliability. However boundaries between mainstream media is getting vague as time goes by as one new media emerges, media ownership has changed. Doubts are arising as media now portray what is desired by the controlling group instead of the voice of the masses (Under the control of media conglomerate or elites)- due to polarized system and the top-down hierarchy. Look at the ownership of media. Media is a tool for manipulation. Cannot be denied that media does not have effect as the very moment you are exposed to the media. Misuse media distort the original value of media MSM is a polarized system, meaning one-way information to be transmitted/ passed down. This is a situation known as Agenda-setting. Diffusion of information People see Mainstream media (MSM) as an avenue to transmit / bridge between the public and government. Some see MSM as a tool used by those who are in power, i.e. global company owner, the government, private sector. Media are supporting roles in govt policies Acts + Media ownership ÃâÃ limit / put constraints http://www.mediaprima.com.my/aboutus/our_profile2.aspx Media Prima- leading integrated media investment group. (media conglomerate) own 100% in TV3, NTV7, TV8, TV9, NSTP (The New Straits Times Press (Malaysia) Berhad)ÃâÃ NST, The Malay Mail Berita Harian, harian Metro, Fly fm, Hot Fm, One fm Clearly show media are generally/ widely use to propagate govt ideology Discussion part: usage ÃâÃ emergence of new media Audience are not passive. Relaisation whos behind the mediaÃâÃ increase erosion of the medias credibility Demand for greater transparency, accountability and democracy. Demand for proof / seek reinforcement) Some responded that mainstream media fails to meet the communication needs of certain groups (esp minority) Media is merely a tool To use it wisely or to misuse it (distort it) is up to an individual and the As long as it is under the grasp of the government, freedom of speech can never be truly realised!
Supply Chain Management Objectives in a Factory Automated sandwich making industry provides ready-to-eat, easy-to-consume and pre-packaged sandwiches. These sandwiches are very popular because of many factors like speed of delivery and the quality that comes with every unit of sandwiches. Automated sandwich plants employ a continuous production cycle that works as per a standard demand and supply schedule. The production process is precise and well maintained, while the process itself is a byproduct of well-calibrated marketing strategy. The production schedule is backed by several other departments whose support is very important to keep the production going without any hitch. Like any other production facility, even sandwich making plant operates in a similar way planning production, purchasing raw materials, registering orders, producing sandwiches, packing them and dispatching them are final delivery are some of the basic processes that occur there. This short paper analyses supply chain management objectives help an automated sandwich-making factory to focus on its production and sales management goals and to create strategies to enhance turnover and profits. This becomes very essential as a large super market chain places a large order for high quality sandwiches. The main objectives of the firm after getting this order is to evaluate, analyze, and review the exiting production practices and later design an action plan that result in the production of 12,000 units of sandwiches every week. To produce such an amount of weekly order, the firm will need to combine its plans and strategies along with streamlining the numerous supply chain components. In addition, the firm will also need to step up the supply chain profitability so that the production process retains its marketing and competitive edge. Like any other manufacturing facilities, even sandwich making plants works on the principles of supply chain management. Supply chain management objectives the most basic measures that drive the production process Lee and Billington (1993) define a supply chain: As a network of facilities that performs the functions of procurement of material, transformation of material to intermediate and finished products, and distribution of finished products to customers. In other words, a supply chain is also an intricate system of personnel, production activities, skills, knowledge, information and resources involved in transferring a given product from supplier to a customer. Supply chains also link value chains as described below in subsequent chapters. Supply chain management is an advanced concept that is considered by almost all businesses in the world. A sandwich making business can easily use the basic principles of supply chain to enhance its product delivery mechanisms by linking several business functions. To introduce a profitable supply chain, a business development manager should design and create a plan the leads to reliable and guaranteed supply chains that also provide high quality products. Supply chain management (SCM) demands a far stringent transformation from administering simple individual departments who handle individual functions, to integrate them in a seamless manner. The result of such an action is the creation of many important supply chain functions and processes. Let us consider a simple example: A firm gets a big order for some products. The details of the order will be dispatched from the sales department to the purchasing department. Now, the purchasing department will start placing the required order with the production department. The production department will produce the required products and dispatches them to the marketing department that in turn will sell the goods to wholesalers and retailers. However, the marketing department will need to asses customer demand by communicating with wholesaler and retailer distributers; the main goal of this exercise is to find out the exact demand for the product. It means that a method of process integration is carried out with different supply chain partners. Integrating supply chain business functions will include well planned and teamwork between buyers and suppliers, production and sales department and through sharing information that is common to all the stakeholders. In the present example, we will consider different business functions of the sandwich-making firm like purchase of raw materials, receipt of orders from retailers and wholesalers, activities of marketing department and inventory department and production and marketing department. Such integration needs the flow of information in a calibrated and continuous manner (Lambert and Cooper, 2000). Appropriate technologies and methods could help manufacturers create an optimum supply-chain system. These are possible by using demand, supply philosophies like push, and pull techniques. Defining push and pull philosophies are very important for a sandwich company that wants to sell many sandwiches per week. Customer or demand side push is actually an entrepreneurial response in hope of customer demand. On the contrary, demand or customer pull is a response that actually results from ensuing customer demand. However, it is very difficult to decide if a particular supply chain is in push or pull mode in a general mode. Here, the business may need to decide what constitutes the supply chain and how different stakeholders act in the supply chain. In the present example, there is already a readymade demand for 12,000 sandwiches per week and this is classic example of customer pull. In most of the supply chain scenarios, demand-push may meet demand-pull and this is the situation when the inventory starts accumulating. This is a typical push-pull interface or a supply chain decoupling point. For the sandwich making business mentioned in this example, the benefits of acting to a pull model is very compelling as the calculated levels of production is independent of forecasts for a future order. The general axiom that works very well here is very simple just produce what you pull from the customer exactly at the rate of their needs. A business that operates in a pull philosophy can perform better to accept changes that usually occur in tastes and preferences of customers. However, the sandwich business that operates in this mode may not use this model unless there is clear demand from the customer side. Many dial-up pizza shops prepare their products based on specific demand-pull to supply a particular number of pizzas. This example is non-analogous to the present sandwich making company. In a typical pizza supply unit, the delivery is held until there is a specific order for pizzas. To be able to respond to a situation, the unit will include bases and ingredients as built-in inventory well in advance. The final delivery will occur only when there is a specific order. It means that there is an evidence of both push- pull philosophies in that example. In the present example, there is already an element of customer-pull and it ensures a confirmed order for sandwiches. Demand-pull philosophy has the ability to reduce waste and inventory and it is more in the direction of satisfying needs of end customers. In the end, a sandwich business that operates on this principle should create a package of practices that include the best supply management principles. SCM Cycle View Model All manufacturing activities are divided into many sub-activities that eventually help the sandwich company to conduct the business operations in an optimal manner. Like any other business, even sandwich making business operates in a standard manner that actually mimics a standard production assembly format. In essence, a given production assembly consists of four important components Customer order cycle, Replenishment cycle, Manufacturing cycle and Procurement cycle. Customer order cycle: This is the mutually agreed cycle time of a given purchase order. It is also a gap between the purchase order creation date and agreed delivery date. In other words, one should expect the time and it may not be the actual date for delivery. The metrics used provides a guide to deliver the order. Replenishment cycle: This is the average time needed to fill a current purchase order. The time starts when a particular order is sent or receive dot entered. This process ends at the time of shipment or soon after the delivery to the customer. Business developers should consider both the actual delivery time and promised delivery time. Manufacturing cycle time: It is possible to quantify this time from the planned order until the report timing of final production process. One can compare the actual production quantity with the intended quantity. Purchase order cycle time: This metric measures the creation of PO to the delivery at a location like distribution center. Here, one may not have the requested delivery date beyond the agreed lead-time. Here is a standard Cycle view model for sandwich business: Note: One can think of supply chain as a chain of communications that occur between two consecutive stages of production. These cycles always share similar types of communications because the entire process will have a buyer and a supplier. As one go away from the customer, the scale of the transaction will diversify and become larger. Fig 1: Cycle View Sandwich Production Process (Supply Chain Management: cycle view figure adaptation after Supply Chain Management Strategy, Planning Operation; Third Edition; Smil Chopra, Peter Meindl) As mentioned before, a customer cycle involves an external demand. The balance side of the supply chain should react to the existing customer demand and later satisfy it without fail. However, the only hitch is that basic process of creating sandwiches from different raw materials (like vegetables, spices and meat) stage to the ready to eat one will always involve spending some time, money and energy. If the production process is not quick enough to cater to the demand of the consumer, the existing demand may vanish altogether. It means that the producer should make proper assessments of all future demands during the production process. In essence, speculations that the producer makes should be more so that they will take fewer numbers of decisions when there is an unforeseen or uncertain condition. All the reactive processes are the pull processes while the speculative processes are push types. Level 1 SCOR Model According to SCC (2000), Supply-Chain Operations Reference is a top-level business processes related to all phases of satisfying customer demand (SCC 2000). Four important business processes organize this model at its highest level. These processes are Plan, Source, Make and Deliver. For the present paper, we will discuss about the Level 1 aspect and this deals with the MAKE process. Fig 2: SCOR Level 1 Performance Metrics, Diagram (After SCC, 2000) In this process, a business entity uses actions that transform raw products or raw materials into a finished product to meet planned or actual demand or confirmed demand. In the illustration given above, PLAN is a process that accumulates demand and supply to set in motion a plan of action that meets sourcing, production, delivery, inventory and other similar needs. With this Level 1 model, a sandwich business creates a wholesome plan of sandwich manufacturing and delivering from consumer to retailer to production and marketing sectors. In addition, it also streamlines the plan with sales and marketing. At Level 1, the sandwich business considers a number of processes that convert raw materials into finished products to meet the demand placed by the consumer. Here, the sandwich business considers both push and pull philosophies to consider the business processes. A typical supply chain is truly dynamic and interactive. A sandwich business will run through many states procuring raw materials like meat, vegetables, spices, packaging materials and other items from a inventory supplier, actual manufacturing process, the process of distributing the products, dispatching them to retailers and eventually to customer and marketing and promotion departments that actually sell the sandwiches. A competitive business will streamline all these processes into one single entity that eventually enhances productivity and profitability. A supply chain also flows in two directions and it has an attached cost and capacity domain attached to it. An empowered and skilled business management team that can create a viable plan along with strong management and supply chain design fundamentals will succeed in the end.