Saturday, August 31, 2019

Review of Renaissance Architecture

Throughout the past old ages the outgrowth of architecture have gone through assorted evolutionary stages.The doctrine of Architecture produced with clip two major subdivisions which is the basic Renaissance and Baroque architecture.The development of Architecture from basic Renaissance signifier which indicates holding the features of self-respect and formality shown through symmetricalness and that to hold an available infinite for rational battle with the Godhead which can be asserted that it surely provides a rational battle with architecture which is a more effectual agencies to grok and understand architectural signifier than the Baroque signifier which perversely presented the beginning of new dynamic, fluid and theatrical attack to architecture that was designed to impact straight upon emotional manners of battle. The Baroque architecture which was originally linked to the counter reformation which is a motion within the Catholic church to reconstruct itself to react to the P rotestant church and its embroideries were more approachable to the feelings and power of the Italian church which formed a new manner, whereas Renaissance was a mixture of spiritual and secular force and retreat the prosperity and strength of the Italian churches. From the 14Thursdayto the 17Thursdaycentury In Italy, the metropolis of Florence specifically is where the launch of Renaissance architecture which is besides known as ‘Rebirth’ or ‘Revival’ of the Roman authoritative Humanistic disciplines had foremost began and subsequently was distributed to the remainder of Europe. Symmetry, geometry, proportion and regularity of elements are they are shown in Ancient Roman architecture is what stipulate the Renaissance manner. However, in the metropolis of Florence, designers and creative persons demonstrated their support through their advancement of new forms of picture, sculpture and architecture, similar to seeking of prestigiousness and place through their aid of art and letters by the bankers and rich merchandisers. Hence, As clip passed by Renaissance Architecture has evolved and went through multiple phases.At first it has gone through the Early period which is the first passage period.Secondly comes Proto-Baroq ue which is before Baroque or in other words High Renaissance.Finally It evaluated to Baroque period.Baroque architecture began in late 16Thursdaycentury in Italy that turned Renaissance architecture into a philosophical and inventive in a theatrical manner manner frequently to show an inventive thought. Lights and dramatic strength is used besides to stand for Baroque architecture. Bernini and Borromini are the first two major designers that developed Baroque period as Bernini was the first one to germinate many sculptures into his edifices and the Francesco Burromini came to Italy to larn from Bernini. However, every manner of Architecture has its ain features, stuffs, elements and forms and different purposes, but it is supported that nearing architecture with Renaissance manner tends to be more piquant with architecture and understanding it and stand foring it in a right signifier than Baroque manner. Late Roman edifices, peculiarly Donato Bramante’s St. Peter ‘s Basilica Tempietto in Rome its design attains a colossal integrity that was non known before and hence can be considered as ascendant to baroque architecture. Donato Bramante was an Italian designer, who introducedRenaissance architectureto Milan and theHigh Renaissance manner to Rome, where his program forSt. Peter ‘s Basilicaformed the footing of the design executed byMichelangelo. Donato Bramante Tempietto in Rome represent absolutely the Renaissance manner of architecture The tempietto identified the start of the Renaissance in Rome in 1502, when a sanctuary to stand for where saint Peter was killed was requested from Alexander to be built allegedly.Bramante made his edifice to typify the Christian mention for tradition and Platonic penchant for the early church. The edifice is surrounded by a one-story Doric colonnade with entablature and bannister and a 2-story cylinder covered by a hemispherical dome Bramante’s St.Peter strategy symbolized a edifice on the buildup of the Baths of Diocletian covered by a dome similar to that of the Pantheon. Began in April 1506. About all the critical designer of the 16Thursdayand 17Thursdayhad been altered by the same clip that the church was to the full adjusted. Renaissance architecture in both of these edifices tends to holding two-dimensional classicm in which its walls are decorated with culomns, pediments, and blind arches of little physical deepness and that serves as level canvases for a classical inveer, which serves to divide a wall into a precise and orderly signifier, perversely in Baroque architecture the walls are profoundly chelised and curved which treats as undulating whole.Furthermore, St Peter’s basilica and Donato Bramante’s Tempietto in Rome have Facades that are symmetrical around their perpendicular axis. A systenm of pilasters, arches and entlabatures which form a relative surmount the frontages and the columns and Windowss demonstrate patterned advance toward the centre.In contrast Buildings such as John Balthasar Neumann’s Pilgrimage Church of Vierzehnheiligen in Bamburg, Germany the frontages consisted of many curves, Baroque pediments ( which is the triangular country between the rooftop and the border of the roofs ) were frequently extremely decorated. Scrolls and gilded formed the tips sometimes. This is a exposure for John Balthasar Neumann’s Pilgrimage Church of Vierzehnheiligen in Bamburg, Germany which represent the Baroque architecture Floor program: John Balthasar Neumann’s Pilgrimage Church of Vierzehnheiligen in Bamburg, Germany which represent the Baroque architecture The Baroque manner has its alone egg-shaped form and took the advantage of marbles, bronze and gildings in copiousness of the inside and sometimes the insides are covered by multiple aureate puttos and life sized 1s. Using an art technique called as ‘‘Trompe l’oeil’’ painting including strongly realistic imagination hence to make the optical vision and semblance for objects to be seeable in three dimensions the ceilings and domes of the Baroque architecture were formed, alternatively of being an ordinary two dimensional picture. The major function that Baroque architecture acted upon was the call for an architecture that is both approachable and accessible to feelings and emotions and besides a shown statement of wealth and power of church. The frontages consisted of many curves, Baroque pediments ( which is the triangular country between the terminal of the roofs and the rooftop ) were normally highly decorated. The tips were sometimes turned into co ils and gilded. A listed characteristics of churrigueresque architecture would include more curves instead than consecutive lines, cosmetic columns alternatively of a supportive one and twisted in form every bit good, detailing with a high sense of ornament, using the visual aspect of traveling and uninterrupted flow every bit good, along with an copiousness of Windowss, and a batch of pictures intermixing with the architecture. The church was constructed between the twelvemonth of 1743 to 1772 along with it alone design in the inside which strongly reflect the Baroque architecture. The program of the church shows the church has layout which is considered to be a complex of extremely divided spacial agreement in a Latin cross signifier, along with a series of ellipses that divides a big series of ellipses that’s perpendicular to it. Traveling on to the ceiling, it’s broken up with immense Windowss that allow the infinite to be exposed to directional visible radiation. Uniting all this together which is the sum of light coming from the Windowss and the flawless stucco work done by the designers, created an astonishing and simple in footings of a transporting inside which has been called â€Å" God ‘s Ballroom.As a individual approaches the church he or she will witness a fantastic sandstone facade resembling a glorious Baroque manner along with an appealing and warm chromaticity. In decision, Baroque architecture which considered to be related to emotional battle, this manner or architecture dressed ore and give more attending to ornament more than support of the construction, curves instead than consecutive lines, and accent on the visual aspect of motion all along the church. Although Baroque has barrows many characteristics from the idiosyncrasy and Renaissance, but at the same clip there is a batch of differences found between these two manners of architecture. In bespeaking those differences u will reason that Renaissance is more based on pragmatism and being consecutive, every bit good as holding the features of self-respect and formality shown through symmetricalness and that to hold an available infinite for rational battle with the Godhead which can be asserted that it surely provides a rational battle with architecture, while the Baroque manner concentrates more in being complex and in a flow. Giving those factors renaissance architecture can be con sidered more convincing in footings of architectural facets due to the high degree of stableness and proportionality which reflects the construct of power and modus operandi which is needed in topographic points like churches

Friday, August 30, 2019

Multiple Choice Questions

CH 1 Answers Multiple Choice Questions 1. E 8. E 15. E 2. E 9. E 16. A 3. E 10. C 17. D 4. E 11. E 18. E 5. D 12. A 6. B 13. D 7. E 14. E CH 2 Answers Multiple Choice Questions 1. C 11. B 21. E 2. C 12. E 22. A 3. B 13. E 23. C 4. B 14. E 24. D 5. D 15. B 25. C 6. E 16. D 26. A 7. A 17. D 27. D 8. D 18. E 28. B 9. A 19. C 10. D 20. E CH 3 Answers Multiple Choice Questions 1 B 9. B 17. D 2. C 10. A 18. E 3. B 11. A 19. C 4. D 12. B 20. D 5. E 13. D 21. C 6. A 14. A 7. C 15. D 8. E 16. A CH 4 Answers Multiple Choice Questions 1 B 9. B 17. D 2. C 10. A 18. E 3. B 11. A 19. C 4. D 12. B 20. D 5. E 13. D 21. C 6. A 14. A 7. C 15. D 8. E 16. A 9. D 18. B CH 5 Answers Multiple Choice Questions 1. E 11. B 21. C 2. B 12 B 22. A 3. C 13. B 23 B 4. C 14. E 24 A 5. B 15. E 25. C 6. B 16. C 26. E 7. D 17. D 27. B 8. A 18. A 28. A 9. B 19. D 29. D 10. B 20. A Solutions 16. Solution: use Equation (5-4) [(. 32 – . 30)/. 30] x (360/180) = 13. 3% 17. Solution: use Equation (5-4) [(. 30 – . 32)/. 32] x (360/180) = -12. 5% 18. Solution: cross rate . 28/. 86 = . 3256 19. Solution: cross rate DM. 31/FF: FF1/DM. 31 = FF3. 23/DM FF3. 23/$. 35 = FF9. 228/$ 20. Solution: use Equation (5-1) [(. 0045 – . 0035)/. 0035 = 29% 21. Solution: use Equation (5-8) [(. 864 – S)/S) x (360/90)] = . 10 – . 04 S = . 3807 22. Solution: use Equation (5-6). Remember that Cr$3342. 63 = $0. 0002991. new exchange rate = $0. 0002991[(1 + . 05)/(1 + . 90)] = $. 0001652/Cr$; or Cr$1/$. 0001653 = Cr$6053. 27/$ 23. Solution: Use Equation (5-7): nominal rate = real rate + inflation rate. nominal rate = 5% + 4% = 9% S olution: invest in the U. S. : $10,000 x 1. 01 = $10,100 invest in the U. K. and cover in the forward market. buy pounds at the present spot rate: $10,000/1. 8 = ? 5,555 invest in the U. K: ? 5,555 x 1. 015 = ? 5,638 sell pounds forward: ? 5,638 x 1. 8 = $10,036 The investor would earn $64 more by investing in the United States instead of the United Kingdom. 25. Solution: use Equation (5-8) and solve for the forward rate: [(F – 1. 800)/1. 800 x (360/90)] = 0. 04 – 0. 06 F = ? 1. 809 26. Solution: use Equation (5-8) and solve for the U. K. interest rate. [(1. 780 – 1. 800)/1. 800 x (360/90)] = 0. 04 – if if = 0. 084 27. Solution: Use Equation (5-1). % Change = (0. 68 – 0. 64)/0. 64 = 0. 0625 or 6. 25% 28. Solution: Converting the above example into indirect quotations, the Swiss franc changes from 1. 5625 francs to 1. 4706 francs. Use Equation (5-2) to solve this problem. % Change = (1. 5625 – 1. 4706)/1. 4706 = 6. 25% 29. Solution: Use Equation (5-3). Spread = (0. 68 – 0. 64)/0. 64 = 0. 0625 or 6. 25% CH 6 Answers Multiple Choice Questions 1. E 10. E 19. B 2. E 11. B 20. E 3. E 12. E 21. E 4. B 13. A 22. C 5. C 14. A 23. D 6. E 15. D 24. A 7. C 16. C 25. B 8. B 17. D 9. B 18. A Solutions 16. $value = $0. 50 x DM10,000,000 = $5,000,000 17. Investment =? 62,500 x $1. 65 x 0. 02 = $2,062. 50 Profit = ? 62,500 ($1. 67 – $1. 65) = 1,250 Rate of return = (1,250/2,062. 50) x (12/6) = 121% 18. Potential profit = $1. 65 – $1. 62 = $0. 3 19. Potential loss = $1. 62 – $1. 65 = -$0. 03 20. Buy call options on March 19 -$0. 04 Exercises the option on September 19 -$0. 80 Sell the pounds on September 19 +$0. 92 Net profit as of September 19 +$0. 08 Net profit for three contracts = Can$150,000 x $0. 08= $12,000 21. Total loss = Can$150,000 x $0. 04 = $6,000 22. Intrinsic value = $0. 16 â⠂¬â€œ $0. 15 = $0. 01 23. Breakeven point = $1. 75 + $0. 07 = $1. 82 24. Total receipts = FF10,000,000 x $0. 20 = $2,000,000 total premium = FF10,000,000 x $0. 05 =$ 500,000 net receipts = $1,500,000 25. Breakeven point = $0. 70 – $0. 05 = $0. 65 CH 7 Answers Multiple Choice Questions 1. E 10. C 19. C 2. E 11. B 20. B 3. E 12. B 21. D 4. C 13. A 22. E 5. E 14. B 23. A 6. A 15. B 24. C 7. E 16. C 25. D 8. A 17. E 26. A 9. C 18. A 27. D Solutions 20. $7,500,000 x (0. 082 – 0. 08) = $15,000. 21. $15,000 x the annuity discount factor of $1 for 5 years at 8 percent = $15,000 x 3. 993 = $59,895. 22. You will receive a total of $30,000 for the first two years [$7,500,000 x (0. 082 – 0. 080) x 2]. The new floating rate that you will receive: 8. 2% -1. 5% = 6. 7%. You will pay a total of $292,500 for the last three years [$7,500,000 x (0. 67 – 0. 08) x 3 years]. Thus, your net payment over the five years will be -$262,500 ($30,000 – $292,500). 23. $500,000 x SFr1. 4 = SFr700,000. 24. $500,000 x 0. 09 = $45,000. 25. $500,000 x (0. 09 – 0. 08) = $5,000. 26. SFr700,000 (1. 08) = SFr756,000. 27. $500,000 (1. 09) = $545,000. CH 8 Answers Multiple Choice Questions 1. E 9. E 17. D 2. C 10. A 18. D 3. E 11. D 19. A 4. D 12. E 20. C 5. E 13. C 21. E 6. D 14. E 22. C 7. E 15. D 23. C 8. B 16. C 24. E Solutions 18. Use Equation (8-1): % Change = ( 0. 70 – 0. 65 ) / 0. 65 = 7. 69% 19. Use Equation (8-2): % Change = ( 0. 65 – 0. 0 ) / 0. 70 = -7. 14% 20. Use Equation (8-1): % Change = ( 0. 44 – 0. 40 ) / 0. 40 = 10% 21. Use Equation (8-3): Predicted Rate = $0. 4 x [ ( 1 + 0. 05 ) / ( 1 + 0. 03 ) ] = $0. 4078 22. ( 0. 4400 – 0. 4078 ) / 0. 4078 = 7. 9% 23. Use Equation (8-5): Predicted Rate = $0. 50 x [ ( 1 + 0. 12 ) 5 / ( 1 + 0. 08 ) 5 ] = $0. 5997 CH 9 Answers Multiple Choice Questions 1. B 10. D 19. C 2. E 11. D 20. D 3. D 12. A 21. A 4. C 13. A 22. A 5. E 14. E 23. C 6. E 15. E 24. D 7. C 16. A 8. E 17. C 9. D 18. B Solutions 12. Call option = ? 50,000 x $1. 7 = $85,000 Spot transaction = ? 50,000 x $1. = $90,000 Thus, the U. S. company should exercise the option. 16. Net Exposure = Ps300 million – Ps200 million = Ps100 million Gain or loss = $0. 0001 x (-Ps 100 million)= – $10,000 17. (Expected amount) $15 million – (actual amount) $14 million = exchange loss of $1 million 18. (Profit after taxes) ? 50 million + (depreciation) ? 10 million = (cash flows from operation) ? 60 million Exchange gain or loss = ? 60 million x $0. 02 = $1. 2 million 19. Gain or loss = $15 million x 3 = $45 million 20. [ ( 1. 8090 – 1. 800 ) / 1. 8000 ] x 360 / 90 = 0. 08 – 0. 1 0. 02 = 0. 02 21. irect loan credit swap 50,000y + (250,000y – 500,000) = 50,000y + 50,000 y = 2. 2 22. $value = $2. 02 x ? 10,000 = $20,200 23. 1) borrow ? 9,709 (10,000/1. 03) 2) buy $19,515 (? 9709 x $2. 01) 3) invest $19,515 in the U. S. at 2% 4) receive $19,905 ($19,515 x 1. 02) 24. Call option = ? 50,000 x $1. 7 = $85,000 CH 10 Answers Multiple Choice Questions 1. E 10. D 19. e 2. E 11. E 20. E 3. C 12. E 21. D 4. B 13. D 22. A 5. E 14. D 23. E 6. E 15. E 7. D 16. E 8. E 17. B 9. E 18. C CH 11 Answers Multiple Choice Questions 1. B 9. A 17. B 2. B 10. B 18. E 3. E 11. D 19. B 4. E 12. D 20. C 5. B 13. A 21. D 6. D 14. E 22. E 7. B 15. A 8. D 16. C CH 12 Answers Multiple Choice Questions 1. E 10. B 19. C 2. A 11. A 20. D 3. E 12. C 21. D 4. E 13. C 22. B 5. B 14. B 23. D 6. D 15. E 24. C 7. D 16. E 25. C 8. E 17. E 9. E 18. A CH 13 Answers Multiple Choice Questions 1. C 8. C 15. E 2. A 9. D 16. A 3. D 10. E 17. D 4. E 11. C 18. B 5. D 12. B 19. E 6. D 13. B 20. B 7. D 14. D 21. D CH 14 Answers Multiple Choice Questions 1. E 11. E 21. D 2. D 12. E 22. E 3. E 13. B 23. C 4. E 14. A 24. B 5. A 15. B 25. A 6. A 16. C 26. D 7. B 17. B 27. D 8. B 18. E 28. C 9. E 19. C 10. D 20. A Solutions 25. Solution: U. S. nvestment earns 1 percent. Percentage change in mark = ($0. 40 – $0. 50)/$0. 50 = -20%. German investment loses 18. 8 percent: [(1 + 0. 015)(1 + (- 0. 20)] – 1 = -18. 8%. 26. Solution: Convert DM100,000 to $50,000 at $0. 50 rate. Invest $50,000 in the U. S. at 11 percent. ($50,000 x 1. 11 = $55,500) Reconvert dollars to marks. ($55,500/$0. 46 = DM120,652) Yield = (DM120,652 – DM100,000)/DM100,000 = 20. 65%. 27. Solution: Use Equation (14-1). 0. 10 = (1 + 0. 13)(1 + ie) – 1; solve the equation for ie (percentage depreciation). ie = (1 + 0. 10/(1 + 0. 13) – 1 = -2. 65%. 28. Solution: Use Equation (14-1). 0. 09 = (1 + 0. 60)(1 + ie) – 1; solve the equation for ie (percentage depreciation). ie = (1 + 0. 09)/(1 + 0. 60) – 1 = -31. 88%. CH 15 Answers Multiple Choice Questions 1. B 9. A 17. D 2. E 10. E 18. A 3. D 11. B 19. E 4. E 12. D 20. A 5. A 13. B 21. A 6. E 14. B 22. B 7. A 15. E 23. E 8. B 16. C 24. A Solution 20. Use Equation (15-2): R = . 07 + (. 15 – . 07) 1. 4 = 18. 2% 21. Use Equation (15-2): R = . 05 + (. 11 – . 05) 1. 2 = 12. 2% < 20% 22. Use Equation (15-4): Rp = (. 4) (. 12) + (. 6) (. 20) = 16. 8%. 23. Use Equation (15-4): 0. 17 = (0. 60) (Rus) + (0. 40) (0. 20). Rus = 15%. 4. Average price = (40 + 50 + 60) / 3 = $50. Use Equation (15-1) for the standard deviation: Standard deviation = {[ ( 40 – 50 ) 2 + ( 50 – 50 ) 2 + ( 60 – 50 ) 2 ] / ( 3 – 1 ) } ? =$10. 1. The coefficient of variation = 10 / 50 = 0. 20. CH 16 Answers Multiple Choice Questions 1. E 11. A 21. C 2. B 12. C 22. E 3. B 13. D 23. C 4. E 14. E 24. B 5. A 15. B 25. B 6. C 16. D 26. B 7. C 17. B 27. A 8. B 18. E 28. E 9. D 19. C 10. C 20. A CH 17 Answers Multiple Choice Questions 1. A 11. D 2. D 12. E 3. B 13. E 4. B 14. E 5. D 15. A 6. E 16. B 7. C 17. A 8. C 18. C 9. B 19. A 10. A Solutions 15. ayback period = 1 + (15,000 – 8,000)/9,000 = 1. 8 years. 16. NPV = $8,000/(1. 12) + $9,000/(1. 12)2 + $10,000/(1. 12)3 + $10,000/(1. 12)4 -$ 15,000 = $13,433. 17. NPV = $8,000/(1. 20) + $9,000/(1. 20)2 + $10,000/(1. 20)3 + $10,000/(1. 20)4 -$ 15,000 = $9,002. 18. Year 1: DM12,000,000 x $0. 60 = $ 7,200,000 Year 2: DM30,000,000 x $0. 60 = $18,000,000 Net present value = $7,200,000/(1. 18) + $18,000,000/(1. 18)2 – $8,000,000 = $11,029,015. 19. NPV = $900 (0. 75)/(1. 06) + $1,000(0. 55) /(1. 06)2 + $1,400(0. 35)/(1. 06)3 -$ 1,400 = $138. CH 18 Answers Multiple Choice Questions 1. D 10. C 19. E 2. C 11. C 20. B 3. D 12. E 21. E 4. E 13. B 22. C 5. B 14. B 23. B 6. C 15. E 24. E 7. B 16. A 25. D 8. D 17. A 26. E 9. B 18. E 27. A 28. D Solutions 21. Use Equation (18-2): Cost of common stock = 4 / 54 + . 09 = 16. 4% 22. Use Equation (18-5): Cost of bond = . 124 (1 – . 40) = 7. 4% 23. Use Equation (18-1): Cost of capital = (120,000/200,000). 164 + (80,000/200,000). 074 = 12. 8% 24. Use Equation (18-3): Cost of common stock = 0. 06 + (0. 08 – 0. 06) 1. 2 = 8. 4%. 25. Use Equation (18-6): The before-tax cost of debt = 0. 30 x 0. 85 – 0. 15 = 0. 105. After-tax cost of debt = 0. 105 (1 – 0. 35) = 6. 3% 26. Use Equation (18-4): The cost of common stock = 1 / 25 = 4%. 27. If you rearrange Equation (18-2) for the market price of equity, you will have: market price = dividend / (cost of equity – annual dividend growth rate) = $1. 2 / (0. 20 – 0. 04) = $7. 50. 28. Solve Equation (18-2) for the market price of equity: Because the dividend per share is $2. 40 ($4. 00 x 0. 60), market price of the stock = $2. 4 / (0. 12 – 0. 05) = $34. 29. CH 19 Answers Multiple Choice Questions 1. E 11. E 2. D 12. A 3. D 13. E 4. A 14. A 5. D 15. D 6. A 16. E 7. E 17. D 8. E 18. C 9. C 19. C 10. D 20. A

Personal computer Essay

1. 1Introduction The spread of globalization entailed the emergence of the new type of society- information society, where knowledge or information has replaced the capital as the main driving force of economic growth. This, naturally, impacts everyday economic and social processes and structures. Knowledge-based economy relies on innovation and scientific research, which could not take place without highly qualified and sufficiently educated human resources. One of the main problems related with the development of the information society is the emergence of the digital divide. The digital divide refers to the gap in society between those individuals, households and enterprises who use the information technologies and those who do not. This results in the divide between the individuals who have access to information and those who do not. As information is becoming more indispensable, the gap is becoming even wider between those who use the IT and those who do not, and results in limited opportunities of the latter. As to Sri Lanka, it is important to analyze and compare the situation in the wider context of other countries as well as the situation within the country alone. Computer literacy is one of the key elements of the information society and one of the most important factors in reducing the digital divide. 1. 2Background An island nation in South Asia, Sri Lanka has a literacy rate of over 90%, which is one of the highest in the region. However, the digital literacy of the country fell far behind, at less than 20% in 2009, according to its Department of Census and Statistics. Therefore, it was imperative for the Government of Sri Lanka to find a quick but affordable solution to introduce basic digital literacy skills to state employees as well as to its citizens. Since the initiation of the Information and Communication Technology Agency of Sri Lanka (ICTA), the low rate of computer literacy in Sri Lanka has been a matter of major concern. With a mere 3% of rural households owning a computer, access to a computer and information is certainly a challenge for the predominantly rural population (70%). The highest computer awareness of 32% was reported from the Colombo district. The next higher percentages (18% – 29%) were reported from a belt of districts consisted of Matara, Galle, Kalutara, Gampaha, Kurunegala, Matale, and Ampara districts. Lowest percentages (4. 7% – 7. 7%) were reported from Mannar, Baticaloa, Nuwara Eliya and Monaragala districts. 1. 3SCOPE Is aimed at increasing Sri Lanka’s current low IT literacy, by enabling access to Information Communication Technology (ICT). This programme fosters the charter to ‘bridge the digital divide†. With the first stage of the project has planned to implement it to the region of the Uva. Because of The Badulla and Monaragala districts ware reported the lowest computer literacy rate of 3 percent. The project takes place in all 02 Districts throughout the Uva province of Sri Lanka in order to train more residents in small rural settlements. The education will take place in computer classes that will be leased out from secondary schools, vocational schools, and other educational institutions and provide adequate facilities as required by the project. In rural settlements, the education will take place in public internet Centers. 1. 4OBJECTIVES Followings will be the main objectives of this project to achieve when it comes to end. ?Knowledge of a personal computer system? Navigate within the Windows environment ?Operate a word processor ?Creating and Managing Files ?Sending & receiving emails ?Install software ?Download Acrobat Reader ?Download Google Talk ?Download Open Office ?Download Skype ?Connect to and surf the internet ?Printing ?Using Windows Live ? 2. CHAPTER TWO – PROPOSED SYSTEM 2. 1General definition Although the computers, Internet and e-mail have been around in households, work places, schools and universities in the country, no studies have been done on the level of usage of these facilities. Therefore, findings of this study can be used as baseline data for measuring e-readiness and by repeating this study at regular intervals preferably annually, impact of various interventions that had been implemented to take the country to the digital age can be evaluated and if necessary, corrective actions can be taken. It is hoped that the information compiled using data collected in this survey can bring about improvements in how these facilities should be introduced and used. Under the project, it is going to be implemented in four stages which are can easily introduce among the peoples. As we identified the main problem behind the situation, the fear to companion with new technology should be wacked out from their mentality. 2. 2First Stage – Introduce the importance of E-Literacy Much of the research work on information literacy has concentrated on skills and education for students or learners, however, a crucial area must be the information literacy levels of staff that are responsible for the development and implementation of e-learning. The technical expertise, knowledge and its services are not reached to the rural people. The reaching of IT wisdom is far dream of rural children or Adolescent Girls and Youth and particularly to illiterate men and women. Hence, the government is committed for to provide Computer Literacy and Information Literacy. Both skills are necessary to cultivate in emerging knowledge societies. In this context and in the process of Research & Development for an innovative project to provide the latest Information & Communication Technology (ICT) as well as to extend Innovative Sustainable  project at their door step and to Reduce the Cost, Time and Energy for overall empowerment & Development of Children, Youth & Women is the idea of this project. 2. 2. 1Objectives: ? To educate children in the e-literacy through schools to children. Three days in a week 02 hours per day from 1000-1200hrs. ?To give training to children above in the age of 18 years in computer typing, MSWord, Paint, MS-Excel, Power Point, Internet knowledge through the Vocational Training Centers. Every week days in week, 02 hrs per day from 1000-1200hrs. ?To provide e-literacy programme for youth and adolescent girls in MS office package. ?To provide teachers training for Inter / graduates in e-literacy classes. ?To train youth in spoken English and special courses. ?To train women functionaries and about community members make them aware about ICT & e-schemes. In this stage of the project is going to provide the basic knowledge about the; ? personal computer system ?Navigate within the Windows environment ?Operate a word processor ?Creating and Managing Files. Other than that the students can get the introduction to the field and importance of the E-Literacy. The total 18-hour e-literacy module on an auto-run CD explains to the users certain basics about how the computer is set up and designed. This includes basic tutorials on the history of computers, the various parts of a computer, and some basic interactive tasks. The training is not geared towards making users able to use computer applications, rather it is meant to give people an introduction to computers so that they can learn later. The method is going to be adopt to innovate the system is by using mobile Tele-centers, which is available with 5-10 PCs inside the vehicle. In this method we can access to the identified places as soon as possible without wasting time and money. As well as the plan is included with the cover it up places which is reluctant to have more gathering in and around area like towns, public libraries, etc. 2. 2. 2Facilities Included: All of the mobile Tele-Centers are fully equipped with 5-10 computers and peripherals ranging from printers, fax machines, scanners, web cameras and copiers to provide ICT services in rural and semi-rural communities. Internet access is provided with high speed broad band connectivity, using satellite technology. Two telephone lines with local and International dialing facility are also available at the centers that do not have fixed phone lines. Internet charges are kept to a minimum to allow people in the area to access internet at a lowest possible cost. Duration 01 Years 2. 3Second Stage – Upgrade the project through the Tele-Centers An essential step in the research process is implementing the access to basic environment which required enhancing the e-Literacy. Once it is found Information literacy is about peoples’ ability to operate effectively in an information society. This involves critical thinking, an awareness of personal and professional ethics, information evaluation, conceptualizing information needs, organizing information, interacting with information professionals and making effective use of information in problem-solving, decision-making and research. In this stage of the project is going to be covering it up the advance knowledge about the Information & Communication Technology by using the Tele-Centers which are located in the specified places of the region. In both the districts according to the suggestion of the project there should have 35-40 nos of Tele-Centers to help the process. Followings will be included for the period of the second stage. ?Sending & receiving emails ?Install software ?Download Acrobat Reader ?Download Google Talk ?Download Microsoft Office ?Download Skype 2. 3. 1Objectives ?To educate children in the advance knowledge about the Information & Communication Technology through Tele-Centers to children. Two days in a week 02 hours per day from 1400-1600hrs. ?To provide advance knowledge about the Information & Communication Technology for youth and adolescent girls. ?To provide teachers training for Inter / graduates. ?To train women functionaries and about community members make them aware about ICT & e-schemes. In the second stage of the project is planned to implement web accessed advance programmes which are related to e-mails and software installations. This stage totally depends with the internet access. With the consideration of the second stage the Tele-Centers must have to play a vital role to accomplish the aim of this project. There should be at least 20-25 PCs in a Tele-Center, other than there should be high bandwidth Internet access, printers, and Direct Telecom facilities. According to the demography, schools available, the total area and the number of students available considering all the matters at least there should be 35-40 Tele-Centers to continue with the project for the second stage. With respect to accessing government information on the websites, awareness on the availability of such government websites should be widely publicized. So far people use the Internet to access the gazette, exam results, general information, etc. Efforts should be made to encourage the downloading of applications and other relevant information. Government institutions should also publicize and encourage the public to use the information available on their respective websites. Duration 02 Years 2. 4Third Stage – Spread out the project with introducing the system using with their own PCs, Laptops, Palmtops, and Smart Phones. In the third stage as well as the last stage the peoples who are having their own accessibility they may allow to access to the internet and serf for the third stage. Though it is not able to do they are welcome to continue with the same method which they adopt during the second stage of the project. During this stage the students may have that opportunity to access the internet fully, get the knowledge about the printing of documents and using of live windows. ?Connect to and surf the internet ?Printing ?Using Windows Live Here, each and every student will provide with a separate user name and password to access the internet and participate the basic learning activities in online basis. They may allow to download learning materials related to this project at any time with accessing the own user name and password. Duration 06 months 2. 5Project requirements I. Preliminary data collection. Analyze & identifying potential villages / children, Youth and Women. II. Procurement of Training Building/ Premises on Hire. III. Procurement of infrastructure. Computers, furniture and electronic devices. LCD Projector and Internet connection and allied arrangements. IV. Procurement of Mobile Van to percolation of the center programmes and to create awareness by carrying K-YAN computer machine cum projector device. Imagine the audio visual medium perking up proceedings. It works like computer and uses a projector to beam lessons on the walls. The cost of the equipment is around 1. 10 lakhs. It stores lessons prescribed by the state government in both English, and Sinhala, transforming a mundane science class into one where lessons are taught using visuals and animation. It facilitates the mass communication media in the villages & train the community people with simple arrangements as well as in government schools also. V. Appointment of Faculty / Course teaching teachers. VI. Appointment of Volunteers cum motivators. One for each 2 villages / areas. VII. Appointment of Core staff & Driver. ? 3. CHAPTER THREE – DELIVERABLE ?It will enable children, youth and literate SHG women learn basic computer training & community members will get awareness about the programmes at their door step of villages itself. ?It will provide access to Internet facility to all rural people irrespective of age and gender. ?It will provide access to different knowledge, skills, vocational training programmes and communication skills at their door step. ?It will provide access to e-learning, e-commerce and other information is available to youth.? It will provide access to promote Information Management Center of village level, Encourage the documentation and Resource sharing of Indigenous knowledge information use and servicing among members. The center facilitate the needs assessment, Capacity building of the municipal level to Government and Nationally. ?It will provide access to e-Teacher Training porgrammes within the municipal level it saves their Time, Energy and Money and assured qualitative education as well they enable to procure local employment within their jurisdiction. ? 4. CHAPTER FOUR – SWOT ANALYSIS ? 5. CHAPTER FIVE – CONCLUTION In the paper, certain benefits of the project have been highlighted, which are hard to quantify in economic terms. While our data analysis shows results counter to the goals of mission, overall, on the issue of ‘continued use’ of Tele-centers by citizens, it is clear that even the slightly lower prices often offered by centers for computer training courses are highly valued even if respondents were not necessarily overly enthusiastic about enrolling for such classes. The key recommendations here are that the content and delivery of e-literacy should be changed significantly. While the initial goal of removing the fear of computers is very successful, we must ask what next – people have to stay interested in the course for the entire 15 hours once they pay for it. After the completion of e-literacy, the typical users should be able to do at least some basic tasks on their own. On the issue of service delivery, this is identified by the data as main concern. Clearly, creating and monitoring a project the size of it is a huge task and it is extremely difficult to monitor every aspect of the project. But a greater effort has to be made to ensure that the service delivery is either done through existing State agencies with experience in public spending projects, or through groups with good field credibility doing grassroots work. Finally, if it is agreed that e-literacy qualifies as a public good, the data from project presents strong evidence to uncouple it from Tele-centers.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Company Law Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words - 4

Company Law - Essay Example In the United Kingdom, the enactment of the Companies Act 2006 has created a venue for corporations to return the capital investment to their shareholders to the detriment of their creditors. With more liberal provisions on the distribution of profits to it investors (see UK companies Act 2006 Sections 830 - 831), UK companies have more leeway when it comes to giving out dividends. Like in the United Kingdom, there are also provisions in the Hong Kong Companies Ordinance (Caption 32) that give companies more room to maneuver the release of funds of the company to its shareholders. Provisions on the maintenance of legal capital, the reduction of capital and shares buy backs in the Hong Kong Companies Ordinance give plenty of options to companies in terms of redistribution of capital shares to shareholders. Moreover, the Hong Kong Companies Ordinance is now going through a review process and during the series of consultation conducted by the government; some sectors believe that the revisions in the Companies Ordinance would make it easier for companies to circumvent the protection of legal capital3. Since there are provisions of the law that give more powers to the company to return capital to its shareholders, there are many sectors that believe that the protection of creditors under the legal capital rules is dead4. Their argument is that if the companies can reduce the amount of capital, buy back their shares of stocks at lower prices and distribute profits to its shareholders even if the company still have to recovered losses from previous years, creditors may not be able to collect their money in due time5. Despite the fact that the protection of creditors under the rules of legal capital has already been eroded, we cannot really say that this protection is already dead or totally useless. We have to understand that under Hong

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Racial Discrimination in Policing Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 6250 words

Racial Discrimination in Policing - Case Study Example This project was conducted as a result of research done in the reading and reviewing of a great variety of racially motivated occurrences creating racial tensions and reactions to those tensions. This project focused its concentration upon the eruption of violence and the implications of racially motivated criminal actions. A specific incident which caused tensions to nearly roar occurred in Eltham, Kent when a young, eighteen year old Stephen Lawrence was murdered mere yards from his home by still unidentified white assailants. Perceptions within the public eye were such that racial discrimination was often spoken about by the witnesses, the family of the victim and others involved in the investigation. Though arrests were eventually made, no convictions were ever managed, the case remains open. After some deliberation and thought I chose to study racial discrimination in policing because I felt the consideration of public perception of racial discrimination in policing Eltham, Kent would be the most appropriate use of this information and an in-depth analysis of the processes and procedures in policing would facilitate understanding. Research was conducted to include true to life accounts of the entirety. This was the reason for seeking out governmental inquiries and files that would give accurate and even eye witness testimony of the events that occurred on 22 April 1993 in the brutal death of Stephen Lawrence. The methodology of this project was to develop the viewpoint of the various inquiries and police accounts along with the eyewitness accounts during and after the incident that erupted in the death of Stephen Lawrence more than a decade in the past. The impact of the work performed proves that one's perception of events rarely coincides with another's. There have been two inquiries into the events that transpired and resulted in the death of Stephen Lawrence in Waltham, Kent on 22 April 1993. Neither inquiry resulted in arrest and conviction of those responsible nor would those arrested at the time of the incident have been convicted, instead they were acquitted of the charges against them due to lack of evidence linking them to the crime. The inquiries were held to reveal the inadequacies of policing and the automatic perceptions of race implied or otherwise in the methods utilized while working to discover truth in the midst of mysterious occurrences. The evidence of these incidents would be documented several times in several testaments to the incident, including The Stephen Lawrence Inquiry, Report of an Inquiry by Sir William Macpherson of Cluny as advised by Tom Cook, the Right Reverend Dr. John Sentamu, and Dr. Richard Stone in February 1999. A treatise titled Racist Murder and Pressure Group Politics written by Norman Denni s, George Erdos, and Ahmed Al-Shahi from the Institute for the Study of Civil Society in London first published in September 2000. The Black Information Link of London also provided information in regards to Stephen Lawrence and the results of the official inquiries conducted. The annual reports of the metropolitan police in the United Kingdom would have been consulted, utilizing their annual

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Media Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words - 4

Media - Essay Example Drury (2008) further elaborates that the social networking sights, such as Facebook and Twitter, are two important platforms where people have created virtual identity for sharing different types of content and interacting with each other; thereby, social media democratises the content in its all forms. The scope of this paper is to elaborate on the news consumption and translate that consumption into further interaction and into tangible form such as buying or subscribing to news and information. In this regard, it is essential to highlight that the news dissemination purpose is to increase awareness and enable consumers to make well-informed decisions relating to products and services which are being offered through marketing on social media and other forms which disseminate information and news. Keeping this view in mind, the social media, particularly the role of social networking sites will be closely discussed for producing, marketing, distributing and consuming the news. For this objective, following sections will highlight the role of social media with the above mentioned aspects of news. First, social media and production of news section has been given. It is followed by social media and marketing of news part has been included. Subsequently, social media and distribution of news segment has been incorporated. Before the conclusion part, social media and consumption of news section has been provided. Social media facilitates and empowers the rise of citizen journalism. Citizen journalism refers to individuals, who are not formally member of any news agency, produce, report, and upload any news through using the medium of the Internet and more specifically the social media sites (Bryant, 2006). Silverblatt (2013) differently describe the use and prominence of the citizen journalism on the land of the social networking sites by explaining that the citizen journalism refers to

Monday, August 26, 2019

The Mass Transit Railway Corporation and Miami Metrorail Essay

The Mass Transit Railway Corporation and Miami Metrorail - Essay Example The researcher states that the trains give administrations concealed in numerous different frameworks around the globe: stations have open machines, wheelchair and stroller availability (and the space inside the train to store them), glass entryways obstructing the tracks, and interoperable touch-and-go passage installment. However, following three many years of operation, the framework developed to only 25 miles, added stand out line to MIA and has never conveyed 200,000 riders day by day. Metrorail has not conveyed the guarantees of its initial advocates. Indeed, as Metrorail gets to be more important, it is doubtful that any more lines will be fabricated at whatever time soon. The province does not have the countless dollars important to manufacture such extravagant ventures. Likewise, the national government, which generally has financed huge transportation, undertakings fails to offer intention to help frameworks, for example, Metrorail grows. As an issue, Metrorail will likely remain a two-line framework for a considerable length of time to come. Support and upgrades ought to guarantee at any rate an additional 30 years of operation. Metro assembled heading masters in land, transportation, and metropolitan financing from academe, administration counseling, strategy backing, and government to request the best thoughts for creative methods for tending to Metros test. Educated by our companions and nearby execution measures, Metro is creating rules that the area can use to advise improvement of high limit travel ventures (Benson 1998). Actually, because of the expense connected with Metrorail extension alongside existing area utilizes and constructed environment as a part of a great part of the district, the majority of our future high limit travel ventures will be comprised of other travel modes. Metro needs to enhance the limit at over twelve stations: some of these stations are at limit today, and its complete eight-auto train project will bring many more clients to effectively gathered stations. The organization needs to construct new elevators, extend mezzanines, and assemble walker paths to take care of this future demand.

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Conflict Management Styles Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Conflict Management Styles - Essay Example Prevention of conflicts can have dire consequences on productivity. This is because it is through conflict resolution that underlying issues affecting the employees are resolved. It is also through conflict that eventually people get to understand each other and hence work better together in future. There are many approaches that are used by organizations to deal with conflict at the workplace and of course each approach yields different outcomes. Some of these conflict management approaches include avoidance, negotiation, arbitration, litigation or dismissal and transfer of irreconcilable employees. In most cases organizations will apply a combination of two or more conflict management tactics. In my workplace the popular conflict management approach used is avoidance. This approach takes the form of simply ignoring conflicts among employees in the hope that the issues of contention will disappear. Needless to say this approach only suppresses conflict and aggravates the problems. With time the conflicts become irrepressible and erupt to scandals. Disgruntled employees sabotage office resources and in case the conflict is among co-workers the scenario may take to physical confrontation. This tarnishes the image and reputation that an organization takes so much to build. Another approach used at my workplace is instant transfer of one or both parties to the conflict and in some cases dismissal. This approach has its pros and cons in that transfers can have an adverse effect on the employee and the same for dismissal. However, other times it has been used to dilute tension betwee n worker with bad blood. Separation thus seems to be very logical. Management at the workplace should ensure that it refrains from using such a technique. The techniques used at my workplace contradict with my personal conflict management preferences at varying degrees. I highly believe that avoiding a problem in the hope that it goes away does not help. Communication is crucial to conflict management. It is important to note that conflict mounts slowly from simple arguments then accumulates to intolerable tensions culminating to conflicts. Management can contain and dissolve these arguments and tensions before it translates to conflict. This is possible by monitoring employee relations and identifying potential conflicts. (Nelson & Quick, 2006). In addition, frequent open discussions among the employees and the management can help to quell discontent felt by the workforce before it matures to conflicts and scandal. Further, proper channels and policies that clearly outline the organization's stance on conflict and the expected code of conduct at the organization can help to alleviate conflict. For example, harassment is popular at th e workplace because the organizations lack clear cut rules and regulations to govern relationship among people in the workforce. Women especially fall victim to sexual harassment from their bosses and managers and in most cases feel helpless and turn to conflict in order to grab attention of others. If proper codes of conduct are placed then conflicts at the workplace can be managed. Another shortfall of transfers and dismissal of parties to conflict is that it assumes that only main participants are

Saturday, August 24, 2019

EQ Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

EQ - Essay Example Why? Introduction: Emotional intelligence (EI) has emerged as a highly significant and critical aspect of management after studies related to emotional intelligence gained pace in fields of psychology and management. Leading is an integral part of manager’s job, which requires the ability to influence others to achieve certain goals. In general, emotional intelligence may be referred to the ability of realising or understanding emotions of oneself and others coupled with the ability to put this understanding to use in managing self and others in a manner that produces desired outcomes. Emotions tend to have mental, social and physical impact on self and surroundings, which makes emotional intelligence a necessity in managing relationships and work. Though EI has received much attention from various researchers and scholars around the world, the most significant and renowned studies have been that of Daniel Goleman. Numerous models on EI and its application have been proposed; however, this paper briefly explores EI from Goleman’s (2003) perspective, which identifies four key components namely, self-awareness, self-management, social awareness and relationship management. Further, a short argument about the most important component will be presented before concluding with findings and opinions. Self-awareness: Self-awareness is the first component discussed in EI model, which refers to the ability of recognizing feelings and their impact on outcomes or performance. Goleman (2003) asserts that self-awareness helps in identifying one’s own strengths and weaknesses, which will further assist the individual in taking right steps towards goal achievement or bringing an improvement in expected outcomes. Self-awareness also encourages the individual to introspect and seek feedback; such individuals strive to learn from the feedback and also from their mistakes. Goleman’s (2003) studies indicated that most of the high performing candidates we re high on self-awareness index. Self-awareness also instigates individuals to assess the impact of their emotions on situations and others as well as on the outcomes. Self-management: Self-management refers to the process of controlling oneself and not showing too much of distress or other extreme feelings (Goleman, 2003). Self-management ability helps the individual to build the focus and achieve desired goals. Such individuals possess flexibility to adapt to any situation without getting affected by the changes. Social awareness: This third component refers to the ability to empathize with others and understand their situation without affecting their emotions in a negative manner. Social awareness skills help in developing others by positively motivating them while understanding their negative or disruptive state of mind. Higher social awareness drives greater service-oriented behavior, which is a critical quality for effective leadership from customer, subordinate and situation perspectives. Social awareness also refers to the ability to understand organizational mood or emotion, which will help in understanding and building interpersonal relationships by exerting the right and/or positive influence on others (Lynn, 2000). Relationship management: The last component is relationship management, which refers to the ability to influence, motivate and lead others towards the right direction. As Goleman (2003) explains, Individuals with high social awareness will be able to manage relationships

Friday, August 23, 2019

The Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) rated Taiwan ranked 13th out of Essay

The Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) rated Taiwan ranked 13th out of 66 countries globally for IT competitiveness globally in 2 - Essay Example But to be competitive, there are key public strategies and policies that need to be considered in the field of information technology. In this essay, Taiwan is used as a case study of a highly performing information technology competitive country among sixty six (66) other countries that were ranked by the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU). The inputs that went to getting Taiwan this enviable place of 13th that puts it ahead of countries like South Korea and Japan are examined to the latter using Porter’s Diamond Model. The analysis is also expanded to include ways by which the country can maintain its position or better it as well as ways of avoiding the unlikely event of losing out on its position. At the end of the paper, the writer hopes to achieve the objective of clearly outlining the national information and communication technology strengths and weaknesses associated with various countries in comparison to Taiwan to see how Taiwan could be used as a model especially wh en it comes to the area of electronics and semiconductor development. Overview of the IT Competiveness Index The IT Industry competitiveness index is generally in place as a scale for finding out how various countries are performing in terms of the application of information technology into industrial growth. To this end, several indicators are used to find out how sixty six (66) selected countries are competing among themselves in the various areas of indicators. The index was first published in 2007 (Rad and Beek, 2009) and had 26 of the said indicators grouped into six major categories for scoring. After scoring is done in the various categories, the accumulated score determines the place of various countries. This implies that the IT Industry Competitiveness Index is highly quantitative, making it empirical and open to public critique (Roll, 2006). The subsequent advantage that comes with this provision is that the index is generally tagged as credible; even considering the fact that it is hosted by none other quarters than the Economists Intelligence Unit with support for BSA. The various categories are given different weightings according to the impact that each of them makes towards information technology enhancement. The six major categories and their corresponding weightings are presented below. Category Weighting Overall business environment IT infrastructure Human capital Legal environment R&D environment Support for IT industry development 10% 20% 20% 10% 25% 15% Total 100% Source: The Economist Intelligence Unit Limited, 2011 Factor Conditions Analysis of Taiwan’s Performance The chat bellow gives a detailed and graphical representation of the performance of Taiwan in the 2011 IT Competitiveness Index. From the graph presented above, it can be seen that Taiwan scored more than half of available score of 100% in all six categories. The highest performing scores were however recorded in business environment and legal environment, which scored 86.5% and 74.5% respectively. This means that Taiwan as a country has created an enabling business environment that makes the country highly attractive to investors, both home and abroad. As the investors do business in the country, they are assured of sound legal backing that is free from all forms of

Thursday, August 22, 2019

INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAWS Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAWS - Essay Example This is before utilizing a person’s image or voice for commercial gain, which in this case is Tiger Woods’ picture. Therefore, â€Å"Right of Publicity† ensures corporations, firms and businesspersons do not exploit people’s persona either famous or not to benefit themselves. Hence, protect them and compel those who wish to use these pictures to obtain a legal consent from the owners (Fishman, 2010). States usually recognize people’s rights by granting them free will to either allow or disallow usage of their images especially for commercial purposes (Fishman, 2010). Hence, in this case Tiger Woods has a sole responsibility of deciding if Wheaties cereal firm is liable of using his image or not by agreement. In this case, Tiger woods ought to exercise the â€Å"Right of Publicity† in controlling how Wheaties cereal’s firm utilizes his pictures and others that may intend to do so (Fishman, 2010). This is via granting them consent besides deciding the required compensation based on how long the firms will have to use his reputation in advertising their products. Tiger Woods owns the â€Å"Right of Publicity† similar to any other people in ensuring firms do not exploit his reputation and pictures. Hence, he has the authority of demanding compensation in return, which is in form of cash though this is as per the agreement with the corporate firms. Based on the â€Å"Right of Publicity†, owners have the mandate of prosecuting anyone who might have used their images without their consent (Fishman, 2010). This is especially through advertising or through other forms like reputation riding when the owners are not aware. However, the right also grants owners like Tiger Woods freedom to negotiate with the potential businesspersons, firms and corporations if they are ready to pay for his pictures in advertising their

Leaving a Legacy of Hope Essay Example for Free

Leaving a Legacy of Hope Essay So many people when asked what it was that drew them to this field would tell me, â€Å"I go home every night feeling good about the work I do.† Though this is a genuine and relevant answer to the question, it is not mine. I have always said that it is the people that make this work so special. What makes the population of people that we work with so incredible is that they are not caught up with the everyday way of life that you and I are. It is that freedom from conventions which sets them apart. They are not as worried about the latest fads, trends or fashions. They are people shaped through the years of their lives, filled with experience and wonder that is hard to imagine, let alone understand. They are individual’s not so much worried about â€Å"What do you think about me?† as much as, Do you love me? Their character and convictions are steadfast, and though they may be hardened to change, their hearts remain soft and tenable. The following essay has been written for these people, with hopes that it would inspire even a single person to take an earnest look at Oregon’s current service models for Seniors and People with Disabilities, and to keep Oregon as a premier model in which other states can continue to look to. What legacy will we leave? What hope will we inspire? My objective is to utilize this essay to answer these questions. In our state’s history, Oregon has been blessed with so many great advocates and has been a National leader with the Self-Directed Support model of services across the division of Seniors and People with Disabilities. So how will the new generation of college graduates continue this legacy? After an in depth inquiry into this subject and much self reflection, I submit the following. As we begin to take those choice words like â€Å"Independence, integration, productivity, choice and dignity†, and not just make sure our companies or non-profits mission statements included a few of them, not just check off the box on the service plan that says these are being implemented or accomplished, but actually look at the root meaning of the words. Are we really where we want to be? Or can we do better? We have a choice, we can take a rational and intellectual inquiry into our current and proposed service models to see if the services we are providing and more importantly plan to provide fall in line with these words. Or, we can set our sights on mediocrity, from which no legacy will be made. The choice lies with us. Do we remain stagnant and content with the progress made? Do we measure Oregon against the backdrop of other states and take solace in the fact that we may still be slightly ahead of the pack? I think the answer among fellow Oregonian’s would be a resounding â€Å"No†. The preservation of Oregon’s existing legacy as being a National leader in the legislative, economic and social advocacy for seniors and people with disabilities is important. It is something that I conclude can only be done by my previous statement of rational and intellectual inquiry into Oregon’s current and proposed service models. My personal response to this inquiry is based around the philosophy of person centered planning and person directed supports. With the heart and focus of this model remaining on individual choice. At the age of 25 years old, having spent 5 years in human services I have worked within all different areas of Oregon Seniors and People with Disabilities. Through this time, one theme that I have heard loud and clear from the people I have supported is the need for choice, more specifically is choice as it pertains to the location in which people live while receiving services. Which leads me to the following; If Oregon is going to continue to be a leader and innovator in providing the Self-Directed Support model of services, the legacy of hope that we need to focus on leaving would stem from successful implementation of what is known as the â€Å"Community Based Care† models of services. The emphasis of this model being on serving seniors and people with disabilities in ways to help them live and age comfortably in the place of their choice. Rather than emphasizing their diagnoses, medical condition or inabilities, we focus on the things in life that give them happiness, peace and strength. All things that can be accomplished through something many of us now take for granted, and that’s having the freedom and choice of where we live. As the medical field progresses people are living longer and healthier lives than ever before. The number of those over the age of 65 is growing dramatically. There are 10,000 new Medicare recipients added each day. In 2000 the number of seniors over the age of 85 was 4.2 million. By 2010 the number is estimated to be 6.1 million. Beginning in the years 2011 2012, the baby boomers will begin to turn 65 years old. More astonishing then that, by 2030, Americans 55 and older will account for 31% of the population and those 65 and older will account for 20%. From the fiscal standpoint, Community Based Care has been projected to cost as little as a few hundred dollars a month, comparatively to someone who has been displaced from their home and is living in a facility where the monthly cost to the tax payers now shoots as high as $5,000- $6,000 monthly. The SPD population overwhelmingly wants to age in place, to be able to remain living in their own homes. But they very concerned about their choice to do so. In the book, â€Å"Water for Elephants† Sara Gruen, writes from the perspective of a man named Jacob Janokowski a retired veterinarian who is 90 years old, (or 93 he can’t remember which). Below is an excerpt from the book I believe helps illustrate the discussion. â€Å"But Dad, they said, you broke your hip, as though maybe I hadn’t noticed. I dug my heels in. I threatened to cut them off without a cent, until I remembered they already had controlled my money. They didn’t remind me- they just let me rail on like an old fool until I remembered of my own accord, and that made me even angrier because if they had any respect for me at all they would have at least made sure I had the facts straight. I felt like a toddler whose tantrum was being allowed to run its course. As the enormity of my helplessness dawned on me, my position began to slip. You’re right, I conceded. I guess I could use some help. I suppose having someone come in during the day wouldn’t be so bad, just to help out with the cooking and cleaning. No? Well how about a live in? I know I’ve let things slip a little since your mother died†¦ But I thought you said†¦ Okay, then one of you can move in with me†¦ But I don’t understand†¦ Well, Simon, your house is large. Surely I could†¦? It was not to be. I remember leaving my house for the last time, bundled up like a cat on the way to the vet. As the car pulled away, my eyes were so clouded by tears I couldn’t look back. It’s not a nursing home, they said. Its assisted living- progressive, you see. You’ll only have help with the things you need, and then when you get older†¦ They always trailed off there, as though that would prevent me from following the thought to its logical conclusion.† I truthfully believe it is a realistic belief that Oregon can pioneer the cause of helping seniors and people with disabilities live confidently with independence, and the freedom to age with a positive sense of self-worth in their own homes. This is my vision of Community Based Care, and this is the legacy that I hope to leave behind.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Googles Innovation and Organisation Structure

Googles Innovation and Organisation Structure Google Inc. is an American public corporation, earning revenue from advertising related to its Internet search, e-mail, online mapping, office productivity, social networking, and video sharing services as well as selling advertising-free versions of the same technologies. It was founded by Larry Page and Sergey Bring while they were students at Stanford University. A series of new product developments, acquisitions, and partnerships has always sustained the continual growth of Google. Positive employee relations, environmentalism, philanthropy have been important traits during the growth of Google. It has been identified multiple times as Fortune Magazine’s No1 Best Place to Work, and as the most powerful brand in the world Google’s utility and ease of use have made it one of the world’s best known brands almost entirely through word of mouth from satisfied users. As a business, Google generates revenue by providing advertisers with the opportunity to deliver measurable, cost-effective online advertising that is relevant to the information displayed on any given page. This makes the advertising useful to you as well as to the advertiser placing it.The Google headquarters, the googolplex is located in Mountain View, California(2009 -03-31), the company has 20,164 full-time employees as of March 31, 2009. Products Of Google: Google is mainly known by their search engine. Apart from this Google provides a huge suit of internet related products like Google earth, Google mail, Google news, Google phone, Google calendar Google groups, Google translate, Google images, Google books and other internet related services. Organizational structure and Organizational culture: Specific chronicles are the unfolding convergence of thinking and practice behind knowledge management, organizational learning and complexity theory. Of particular interest are the roles that knowledge management and complexity theory play in this impending consilience of ideas in any organization. One way knowledge management is processing itself of its overly technology-centric reputation in favor of promoting the role it can play in furthering organizational learning. On the other hand, a confident solution in search of unorthodox problems is evolving by complexity theory which has discovered its own true place in the world, an explanation for the means by which living systems engage in adaptive learning and the seminal source of social cognition in living systems. (Mark W. McElroy, 2000) . Goggles remarkable progress shows its organizational behavior. First Google has created a strategic Vision. Creating and expanding knowledge is the key word for Googles success and they believe fundamentally improving the knowledge and share with others, it shows their knowledge management skill. Google is one of the very few companies shows that how technology can be blended with the organizational culture. Organizations are structured depending on their objectives and their culture. Organization is structured as different departments with employees for different functions and responsibilities. Google is keeping minimum hierarchy and redefines management with small teams, innovation and decentralization. Products are developing by small teams and each team is seeking the next break through. Organizational studies and management is dealt with organizational culture which includes attitudes, beliefs and values, experiences of an organization. It has been defined as â€Å"the specific collection of values and norms that are shared by people and groups in an organization and that control the way they interact with each other and with stakeholders outside the organization. (Charles W. L. Hill, and Gareth R. Jones, 2001). Google is the organization which is not serious about anything but search. Generating the idea that work should be challenging and the challenge should be fun. To that end, Googles culture is unlike any in corporate world, and its not because of the whimsical lava lamps and large rubber balls, or the fact that one of the chefs used to cook for the Grateful Dead but in simple way Google puts users first when it comes to online services and employees first when it comes to daily life in its offices(Eric Schmidt, the CEO of Google). Google is very innovative in its products and services providing to its customers as well as to employees. Google realizes that their employees have diverse needs and that diversity requires flexibility and individual directed support. so they given priority to offer customizable program that can be tailored to the specific needs of each individual. Innovation Innovation can be defined as a breakthrough approach or idea that can be completely new or an enhancement to something that already exists; it is a refreshing perspective that will challenge many who just cannot see beyond what their own experience is telling them to think or do. Google keeps innovation as its priority. Google understand that everyone is searching for something different because of the diversity in culture, traditions and standards. So understanding the needs of 597 million customers Google is delivering the best possible products. The company’s VP for search, Marissa Mayer, reported that Google had launched 33 different search innovations in 67 days. Google has been known as No 1 in the world on its innovation in search technology. But Google didnt make any money until they started auctioning in advertisements which is appearing alongside of the search results. Now 99% of the company revenue is generating through the web-ads which made the capital now tops $ 100 million. In order to make the employees empowering on new areas of their choice Google is giving 20 % of the employees time unleashes enormous intellectual power to solve the existing problems through innovative solutions. All products released after 2005 and the 50% of the Go ogles products are produced at this 20% independent project time. Products like Google mail, googlecalendar, google calendarà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦etc all are the output of the employees creativity. Developed countries have the location based services like GPS system to locate a place or a building. But in developing countries doesnt have even a documented map to create a GPS system. Here Google India comes with a new innovative form map maker platform .It is developed like a wiki like architecture to leverage the knowledge of the local citizens to create a entire digital road map of their respective countries. The system is like a clean sheet map of a city is loaded on the web, and wiki-like architecture will allow each citizen to draw their streets and roads including the curves on the streets with land marks and the specific changes will be governed by an expertise teams based on their expertise and contribution on specific local areas of the city. City like Islamabad is a very good example of community built digital map with details of street names and addresses in around 90 days. The main advantage of wiki map is always it is current. All this kind of innovations are becaus e Google is based on certain values and principles which is committed to the society or to the world. And recent innovation of Google is the Operating system. Google chrome Operating System is light weight and open source OS which will initially operates in note books but eventually will work on PC . And this open source operating system will be available in markets by the 2nd half of 2010.The main features of Google Chrome is speed, simplicity and security. This Operating system is designed as a fast and lightweight and will start and get into the web in few seconds. The main advantage of Google chrome Operating system is user doesnt have to deal with viruses, malware and security updates. â€Å"Google is coming at this fresh and, because it is based on a set of services that reside on the web, it is the first really post-web operating system, designed from the ground up, and reconceived for a web world,† Mr. Enderle told the BBC. Advantages Of Google Chrome Operating System: Google Chrome OS is a web based application form. It provides quick access to applications and will repair itself. It will run on any just PC no hard drive. It will design documents. Another innovation of Google is Google phone which is not yet released on the market. Google is planning to release in the beginning of next year. The phone is called Nexus One based on open software platform called Android. It allows the users to use it as an easy programming interface with other cell phone features. The software is developing by Google and the hardware is by htc Inc.The new Google phone will be having a touch screen and Google has been tempted to do this because of the shift of internet usage to mobile phones. So for the developer it is easier to customize phone applications that can access cell phones hardware functions. Bibliography : References: Mark W. McElroy, Integrating complexity theory, knowledge management and organizational learning journal on knowledge management (2000) pp 195-203 Charles W. L. Hill, and Gareth R. Jones, (2001)Strategic Management.Houghton Mifflin, pp 123-127

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Totalitarian Leaders: Italy and Spain

Totalitarian Leaders: Italy and Spain Katie Jones The leader of parliamentary Benito Mussolini and Spains leader is Francisco  Franco. Italy has a rich history and Spain has an extraordinary artistic classic architecture. In World War 1 Italy has been allied with Germany and Spain enjoyed neutrality, when the depression started Italy was at crisis majority and Spain is starting to slide into a full-blown economic depression. The lifestyle Italy has is a consumer segmentation and Spains official language is Spanish,also called Castilian,and it is the first language of over 72% of the population. (eyeonSpain). Paolo Gentiloni is Italys prime minister and Spains prime minister is Mariano Rajoy. Italy in WW2 remained neutral (with the constant of Hitler), but it also declared war on France and Britain on June 10, 1940. Spain in WW2 was governed by a military dictatorship,but despite Francos own pro-Axis leanings and debt of gratitude to Mussolini and Hitler,the government was divided between Germanophiles and Anglophiles. When the war started,Juan Beigbeder Atienza,an Anglophile was the Minister of Foreign Affairs. Ital y and Spain share similar lifestyles, religious values and cultural heritages. In the 1920s and 1930s, a worldwide economic depression caused many people to lose faith in democracy and capitalism. Extreme ideals arose. Communists celebrated what they saw as the failure of capitalism. Benito was an italian WW1 veteran, he also led the fascists on a march on Rome,and King Emmanuel III, who had little faith in Italys parliamentary government. General Francisco is named head of the rebel Nationalist government in Spain. He also was a career soldier who rose through the ranks until the mid-1930s. When Italy gain popular support it seemed to be slipping into chaos. Spain had their food and cultural are also large factors affecting its popularity level. Rebuilding the economy in Italy. Mussolini jingoistic fascist party allied itself with the equally fascist regime of Adolf Hitler in Germany. Spain produces large crops of wheat, barley, vegetables, tomatoes, olives, sugar beets ,citrus fruit,grapes, and cork. It is Italys Benito Mussolini who founded the fascist ideology. Mussolini sought to recreate the Great Roman Empire by use of a totalitarian rule and feeding of the fear of communism. In 1939, Hitler and Mussolini signed the Pact of Steel forming an alliance which is known as the Axis powers during WWII. Benito Mussolinis self-confessed thirst for military glory battled his acute intelligence, psychological acumen, and political shrewdness for control over his military policies. (History. com). On July 18, 1936, the Spanish Civil War begins as a revolt by right-wing Spanish military officers in Spanish Morocco and spreads to mainland Spain. (History. com). In July,1936,Franco joined the military uprising that precipitated the Spanish Civil War. Francisco took command of the most powerful segment and led it back to Spain. Italys political geography has been conditioned by this rugged landscape. With few direct roads between them, and with passage from one point to another traditionall y difficult, Italys towns and cities have a history of self-sufficiency, independence, and mutual mistrust. Visitors today remark on how unlike the town is from the one next to it,one marked differences is the cuisine and dialect that is the difference between Italy and the town next to it. Franco, however, firmly maintained his position of power, even after the assassination of Carrero Blanco in 1973. Although close to the Axis powers and despite their pressure, Franco kept Spain a nonbelligerent in World War II. He dismissed (1942) his vigorously pro-Axis minister and principal collaborator, Ramà ³n Serrano Sà ºÃƒ ±er. After the war Franco maneuvered to establish favorable relations with the United States and its allies. He further reduced the power of the Falange and erected the facade of a liberalized regime. During the next 10 years Franco enhanced his military reputation in a variety of commands and became identified politically with the conservative nationalist position. In 1934 he was appointed chief of the general staff by the rightist government, and he suppressed the uprising of the miners in Asturias. When the Popular Front came to power (Feb. , 1936), he was made military governor of the Canary Islands, a significant demotion. The similarities lifestyles of Italy are a consumer segmentation section in the report breaks down the Italys consumers by specific age groups. Spains similarities-religion plays a very important role in their lives. Italy is a nation embracing all creeds and religious where the relationships between state and church is regulated. Spains religious values are Catholic Christianity is by far the largest religion in Spain. Depression in Italy is the crisis majority influenced political and economical aspects in Italy. Spain is sliding into a full-blown economic depression with unemployment approaching levels. Works Cited Francisco Franco. . Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th Edition. US: Columbia UP, 2016. 1. History Reference Center. Web. 22 Mar. 2017. Hettinger, Laura. France, Italy, and Spain: Culturally Similar Nations, Yet Drastically by Laura Hettinger. DigitalCommonsUConn. University of Connecticut Library, 1 May 2008. Web. 22 Mar. 2017. Italy. Britannica School, Encyclopà ¦dia Britannica, 6 Dec. 2016. school. eb. com/levels/high/article/Italy/106448#27009. toc. Accessed 22 Mar. 2017. Living in Spain. Living in Spain Resources. Eye on Spain, 2017. Web. 22 Mar. 2017. Shen, Catherine. Guided History. Guided History The Aftermath of WWI The Rise of Fascism in Germany and Italy Comments. Boston University, 29 Apr. 2013. Web. 22 Mar. 2017.

Monday, August 19, 2019

Comparison of Macbeth and Tomorrow, Tomorrow, Tomorrow :: essays research papers

  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   All people have probably considered that immortality would be an extremely joyous experience. William Shakespeare’s play Macbeth, tells of the quality of life and how man exerts it; this is in direct comparison with Tomorrow, Tomorrow and Tomorrow, written by Kurt Vaunnegut. Where as he also writes of the quality of life with the implication of immortality by drinking the miracle drink, Anti-Geresone. The insignificance of man from Shakespeare along with the concept of living forever from Vaunegut, draws the question of why would someone not want to die if life was so worthless. Both authors question the quality of life and as a result they express their concern in their writing.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  In their work, each express different concepts on the same common scenario; Life not being very pleasant, â€Å" Tomorrow and tomorrow and tomorrow creeps in this petty pace from day to day to the last syllable of recorded time.† Which explains how all the days keep on coming and coming and yet man already is looking ahead to the next. In T&T&T (Tomorrow and Tomorrow and Tomorrow); Everything has been experienced over a Quadrillion times, which has in turn lead to life being predictable and somewhat pointless; just as in Shakespeare. Merely waiting for the next thing to happen as if it already has. The people want to live forever, but why, if Shakespeare’s analysis is correct in saying life is so insignificant, â€Å"Out, out brief candle.† Suggesting that this life is useless and should end. When in contrast in Vaunegut’s story death is the insignificance. Why die if one could live on? Truly William Shakespeare feels that the way man i s living is unacceptable and the man should feel the same or die; â€Å"It’s a tale told by an idiot full of sound and fury signifying nothing.† Rather in Tomorrow and Tomorrow and Tomorrow, the nothing William is speaking of is everything to them. Furniture, possessions, and such are important, but the lack of these provides space, which, in turn is their most precious commodity.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Equal Partnership Rights for America :: Gay Marriage Essays

Equal Partnership Rights for America The president has often indicated that he would support a constitutional amendment against gay marriages. The Supreme Court has not yet seen a case dealing with marriage rights of homosexuals, and therefore the constitutionality of laws banning gay marriage have not yet come into question. Homosexuals would argue that they are seeking marriage rights equal with that of heterosexual marriage under the eyes of the law. Some people feel very strongly about this issue and see support for gay marriage as a governmental intrusion on a religious practice. Others see no correlation between mandates on marriages and religious freedoms. All opinions aside, this is an issue that the public simply isn’t very well informed about because there are other issues that have been seen as much more important, because they affect a greater amount of people. Despite other issues being in the public’s attention, the problems aroused by the prospect of gay marriage will soon make their presence known. The forefathers of our country inserted a clause into the Constitution known as the â€Å"full faith and credit† clause. Said clause (Article IV, Section 1, United States Constitution) insures that â€Å"full faith and credit† be given to the laws and judicial proceedings of all the states by all other states. That is, if a contract is signed in Arizona, one cannot simply move to Texas and the contract become null and void. The reason this clause can be a problem for those opposed to gay marriages is that some states are pushing to legalize or have legalized same-sex marriages or civil unions. The reason the national government cannot simply declare gay marriage illegal and thereby prevent the states from legalizing it is: 1. No authority is given to the national government (legislative branch) to make such a law; and 2. The legislation would likely not pass in the house and the senate. If any state were to pass a law declaring same-sex marriage legal in that state, all other states would have to recognize the legality of that contract and the rights that went along with it. So thousands of homosexuals would flock to that state (be it Hawaii, or Vermont) to be married, then be legally married everywhere in the United States.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

“Lord of the Flies” †novel by William Golding (1954) Essay

In this essay I will be comparing the three approaches to the incident of Piggy’s death. This is a very significant moment in the ‘Lord of the Flies’ and symbolises how outcasts are treated in a broken down society. I will be comparing the novel by William Golding, with the film by Peter Brook and the film by Harry Hook. The original book was written directly after World War 2, which had a great influence on how Golding decided to plan and write his book. The original book is the true ‘Lord of the Flies’, and the films are adaptations of the original novel. The film that was made in 1961 by Peter Brook was a very close interpretation of the original novel. The characters are the same, the setting is same, and the whole story loosely follows the same pattern as the book. Brook used thirty boys, aged eight to fourteen with non-acting backgrounds, as they all came from a randomly picked London school. He took them to an island off Puerto Rico for 3 months, in which time he filmed this masterpiece, which was ground breaking at the time and closely followed the book. It was original and daring, and was filmed in black and white with restricted amount of equipment. In contrast, the second film produced by Harry Hook in 1994, which was based on the same idea, but was set in different situations. The audience he was attracting needed much more action and adventure, which the old version doesn’t show and would probably be laughed at by Hook’s audience. The film needed to be original, which it was to his audience, but he cleverly used the book and the other film as a basis on which to build his ideas. The film, ‘Lord of the Flies’ by Harry Hook was filmed in colour, with American actors playing as army cadets with ‘mod cons’ such as army knives and watches. Changes such as including adults in the story and use of strong language add a twist to the original novel, and which isn’t portrayed in the 1961 version. It moves completely away from Golding’s original narrative, and his initial intentions. The opening shot is similar in the three versions of ‘Lord of the Flies’, but also has differences. The differences between the two films become evident at the opening of the scene. As the thundering waves are hurled against the sharp, jagged rocks with the darkness and savagery within them, the scene becomes clear. Brook turns to the boys walking along, you just know that something is going to happen. In the Peter Brook film, the coastline is the main feature, with the boys looking small, walking along. The faces of the boys are not so easy to depict until they get close enough. Ralph, Piggy and SamnEric, are looked down on by the camera, with the commanding rocks and the roaring sea all around. However, the boys don’t seem to be put off by this and look positive and intentional in their visit. In comparison, the Hook film shows the shot to be not so dark and suspicious, but more religious and sacrificial. The background noise of the crashing waves is substituted with choral singing. This time, we only see Ralph and Piggy approaching the rocks. Piggy is wearing full cadet uniform and appears not to be having problems with his sight. The boys are at the same level, and the darkness and savagery seems to be lost from this film. Both films have followed the idea of the book, Hook’s version more loosely than Brook’s film. Neither mentioned how much Ralph was injured or his ragged appearance as in the novel, â€Å"Ralph went first, limping a little, a spear carried over one shoulder.† The films left this out because it may well have not appealed to their audiences, as the hero doesn’t look perfect, especially with the later film. Hook also left out SamnEric in the advancing bunch. Golding, who wrote the original ‘Lord of the Flies’, starts this scene by retelling some of the plot. He reminds the reader how such a beautiful island has been effected by society, and how individuals can ruin things for everyone. â€Å"The sky and the mountain were at an immense distance, shimmering in the heat; and the reef was lifted by mirage, floating in a kind of silver pool half-way up the sky.† This little interlude reflects on the past, and will maybe add more impact to the incidents to come. Golding also mentions fire, which reminds the reader of how Jack stole the glasses off helpless Piggy, to use for their own comfort and as a aid for a cooking fire. The first sign of conflict between Jack and Ralph is when they meet. They start to argue and quarrel, and tension is built up within this period. This is the same with all three texts. Ralph intentions are clear as he approaches, but Jack wants none of it. In the novel, Golding has built up the tension with words he uses, â€Å"Ralph’s temper blazed out†. The sentences are short, and not very descriptive. The main feature of the scene, the fight, is portrayed similarly in all three texts. They attack each other vigorously, and the real conflict and anger between the two groups is apparent. In the film, by Brook, the camera can be used to aid the build up of tension as well as the dialogue. The short camera angles used reflect Goldings’ staccato language. The camera looks up to Jack, and down to Ralph. He appears in a definite commanding position. The camera follows Jacks face, which appears dark against the rock, and is hidden whenever Ralph speaks to hide his thoughts. He wears a mask to hide his face, which is savage and evil. Prior to the fight, the camera sways to Jacks barbarous face, with him holding his spear, with only the point showing. This shows the wildness and spite within Jack. This is shown similarly in the Hook film, but Jack doesn’t wear a mask, so we see more of his face. However, Hook has decided to use stronger language to convey the anger between the two boys. Hook chose similar camera movements and patterns to Brooks’ film, as they seemed to show the positions of the characters well and would appeal to his modern audience. Ralph and his gang are portrayed as the lower, weaker force, and Jacks rabble are shown as being in control. The main feature, the fight, is depicted equally in the three texts. Both sides seem angered, and in Hook’s film, the loss of society is also shown. Ralph, usually the well-balanced, even-tempered individual, is lowered to such means as fighting. On the other hand, that is Jacks usual way of settling things. Roger has a strong influence on Piggy’s death and plays a significant role, in all three interpretations of the ‘Lord of the Flies’. Roger is first introduced into the scene in the novel, when he starts to toss rocks at Ralph. His physical appearance is kept a secret and is only released when he pushes the lever, â€Å"Roger, with a sense of delirious abandonment, leaned all his weight on the lever.† Roger is introduced earlier on in Brook’s film. What we see of Roger is a godly figure, with his face outlined to the sky. Hook shows us a close up of Rogers’ face from below. He is painted with black paint around the eyes and mouth, which looks like deep hollows in which evil is to be found. He is a symbol of evil and power and as a slight grimace creeps along his face, the audience is shocked by this terrifying image. His intentions become clearer as the scene advances. A longer period of time is spent on him, so does the amount we see of him. When the camera shows us his hand going towards the lever, the anticipation is built up, with the climax of him releasing it with great force, pounding down onto Piggy’s head. Roger is not so well shown in Hooks film. Most of the time he is hidden by the cliff edge and the other savages, but once the stone is released, Rogers’ face is no longer mysterious, but is clear. This makes the audience feel suspicion and fear towards Roger. Piggy is the main character in the scene, and is based on the character first developed in Golding’s novel in both the book and the films. Piggy has similarities and differences in the films, but the main ‘feeling’ of Piggy’s character is conveyed quite well. In Peter Brooks film, Piggy is uneasy about the situation, poised on the steep rocks which seem to fall into hell. He is wearing full uniform, showing his intentions to keep rules. The camera is overhead, and makes us feel pity for Piggy who is helpless. In the build up to the death, the camera focuses on short close-up shots of Piggy’s face to show his hopelessness and anxiety. Piggys’ voice is blurred by the natural sounds of the roaring of the sea crashing against the rocks. Ralph forgets what he came for, and Piggy knows this. This has an effect on the audience to feel empathy for Piggy. Harry Hook has changed Piggy’s character, to fit his wants and his audiences wants. He doesn’t make Piggy as disabled as Brook does in his film. He allows Piggy to be able to see fairly well and able him to stand on the same level platform as Ralph. Piggy isn’t left out or forgotten during the fight, and can be seen in the shots of the fight, standing in the background. In the book, Piggy seems extremely scared and worried of what was about to happen as he clings onto the steep sided rock face. â€Å"‘Am I safe?’ quavered Piggy. ‘I feel awful-‘†. Brooks’ film is better on picking up on the idea that Piggy is supposed to be very disadvantaged. Piggy’s emotions are shown well in all three texts, as a close up in the film, or as strong description in the novel. The murder is the main feature in the scene we are studying. It has a strong impact on the audience in all of the texts and is transmitted differently in each. In the novel, Piggys death is compared to a pig after his death, which is rather ironic, â€Å"Piggy’s arms and legs twitched a bit, like a pig’s after it has been killed.† The language used here is very severe and looks as thought Golding doesn’t really care about what has just happened to Piggy. After this there is a silence all around, until it is disturbed by a little speech between Jack and Ralph, followed by Jack throwing his spear at Ralph, which then leads him to run away, with spears coming at him from all directions. This isn’t shown in either of the films, and in Brooks’ film, nothing is said, and Ralph just flees. Brook has a lengthy build up to his death scene in his film. Hints are dropped all the time, with the camera continually looking at the rough sea and jagged rocks, then at Piggy’s confused face. Brook supports Golding’s language, with only a few minor changes. In the build up to the climax, the camera continually switches between Piggy and Roger, with longer shots to Roger as we get ever closer to the climax. Also, the noise of the jeering boys gets louder, and sounds more and more like air raid sirens, which adds to the effect of anticipation. This is obviously significant because it indicates the society the boys have just left, and shows the links to situations of which Golding has just witnessed before he wrote his novel, and of the tragedy of war. However, this is something that Brooks audience may not clearly remember so wouldn’t be so obvious in his film. The final shot of Roger is of him pushing down on the lever as with Golding’s novel. The face looks emotionless until the rock is released, when a wide, evil smirk smears across his face. The camera stays still to make Roger look as though he is pushing harder, as he moves out of the shot. We see the rock rolling down, and then we see Piggy’s viewpoint of the rock above, coming straight, bang down onto his head. Immediately as the rock hits Piggy, the jeering comes to a halt, and all is left is the roaring sounds of nature. All, including Jack seem shocked, but Roger is not. The camera switches between the characters showing their disbelief of that which Roger had just done. To end the lengthy scene, Brook has a shot of Ralph looking in commiseration down to Piggy. The camera is then just left still as Ralph scurries over the rocks. Harry Hook has changed the death scene in his film to suit his modern audience. Brook has kept close to the language with Piggy’s speech, and has only changed a few parts to suit more to his audience. In the shot where Roger releases the rock, the director shows the shot from Ralph’s point of view. As the rock falls, Ralph shouts â€Å"NO!† in a slow motion speech. Piggy is oblivious to the situation due to his eyesight. He says nothing, and just falls flat onto the rock and lies there in a pool of blood. This loosely follows the original text by Golding. Golding described how Piggy was knocked into the water and got washed away, whereas there was no sight of this in Hook’s film. â€Å"You’re not gonna get away with this† says Ralph after the death. Jack thinks logically and says that Ralph was on his own, which he most definitely was. The speaking is then terminated by the boys throwing stones at Ralph as he speeds away along the beach. All three versions of the ‘Lord of the Flies’ are interpreted differently, but use the same original story line written by William Golding. All are effective, but some are more so than the others. Personally, I think that Peter Brook directed the best film. This is because it was more appealing to the audience at that time, it was more successful and it follows the book much closer than the other film, which was directed by Harry Hook. However, I do like the book for the detail and originality within it. To me the text vividly describes the sights of horror and the dramatic feelings of loss and grief felt by the societies at this particular time of World War 2. At the time the book was written, which was just after the war, total communities had witnessed such devastation as was described in the book. They could relate directly to the savagery and the way the murder was committed in cold blood. I feel the book also cleverly puts the characters into stereotypes of the tim e, showing how certain communities and their structures can be so easily destroyed.