Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Biography of Benito Mussolini, Italian Fascist Dictator

Biography of Benito Mussolini, Italian Fascist Dictator Benito Mussolini (July 29, 1883–April 28, 1945) served as Italy’s 40th prime minister from 1922 to 1943. As a close ally of Adolf Hitler during World War II, he is considered a central figure in the birth of European fascism. In 1943, Mussolini was replaced as prime minister and served as the head of the Italian Social Republic until his capture and execution by Italian partisans in 1945. Fast Facts: Benito Mussolini Known For: Mussolini was a fascist dictator who ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943.Also Known As: Benito Amilcare Andrea MussoliniBorn: July 29, 1883 in Predappio, ItalyParents: Alessandro and Rosa MussoliniDied: April 28, 1945 in Giulino, ItalySpouse(s): Ida Dalser (m. 1914), Rachelle Guidi (m. 1915-1945)Children: Benito, Edda, Vittorio, Bruno, Romano, Anna Maria Early Life Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini was born on July 29, 1883, in Predappio, a hamlet above Verano di Costa in northern Italy. Mussolini’s father Alessandro was a blacksmith and an ardent socialist who scorned religion. His mother Rosa Maltoni was an elementary school teacher and a devout Catholic. Mussolini had two younger siblings: brother Arnaldo and sister Edvidge. Growing up, Mussolini proved to be a difficult child. He was disobedient and had a quick temper. Twice he was expelled from school for assaulting fellow students with a penknife. Despite all the trouble he caused, however, Mussolini still managed to obtain a diploma and even worked for a short time as a school teacher. Socialist Leanings Looking for better job opportunities, Mussolini moved to Switzerland in July 1902. There he worked a variety of odd jobs and spent his evenings attending local socialist party meetings. One of his jobs was working as a propagandist for a bricklayer trade union. Mussolini took a very aggressive stance, frequently advocated violence, and urged a general strike to create change, all of which led to him being arrested several times. Between his turbulent work at the trade union during the day and his many speeches and discussions with socialists at night, Mussolini soon made enough of a name for himself in socialist circles that he began writing and editing several socialist newspapers. In 1904, Mussolini returned to Italy to serve his conscription requirement in Italy’s peace-time army. In 1909, he lived for a short time in Austria working for a trade union. He wrote for a socialist newspaper and his attacks on militarism and nationalism resulted in his expulsion from the country. After he returned to Italy, Mussolini continued to advocate for socialism and develop his skills as an orator. He was forceful and authoritative, and while frequently wrong in their facts, his speeches were always compelling. His views and his oratory skills quickly brought him to the attention of his fellow socialists. On December 1, 1912, Mussolini began work as the editor of the Italian Socialist newspaper Avanti! Changing Views In 1914, the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand set off a chain of events that culminated in the start of World War I. On August 3, 1914, the Italian government announced it would remain strictly neutral. Mussolini initially used his position as editor of Avanti! to urge fellow socialists to support the government in its position of neutrality. However, his views of the war soon changed. In September 1914, Mussolini wrote several articles supporting those who were backing Italy’s entry into the war. Mussolini’s editorials caused an uproar among his fellow socialists and in November of that year after a meeting of the party executives, he was formally expelled from the party. Wounding On May 23, 1915, the Italian government ordered the general mobilization of armed forces. The next day, Italy declared war on Austria, officially joining World War I. Mussolini, accepting his call to the draft, reported for duty in Milan on August 31, 1915, and was assigned to the 11th Regiment of the Bersaglieri (a corps of sharpshooters). During the winter of 1917, Mussolini’s unit was field testing a new mortar when the weapon exploded. Mussolini was severely wounded, with more than 40 pieces of shrapnel embedded in his body. After a long stay at a military hospital, he recovered from his injuries and was discharged from the Army. Turn to Fascism After the war, Mussolini, who had become decidedly anti-socialist, began to advocate for a strong central government in Italy. Soon he was also advocating for a dictator to lead that government. Mussolini wasnt the only one ready for a major change. World War I had left Italy in shambles and people were looking for a way to make the country strong again. A wave of nationalism swept across Italy and many people began to form local nationalist groups. It was Mussolini who, on March 23, 1919, personally assembled these groups into a single, national organization under his leadership. Mussolini called this new group Fasci di Combattimento (the Fascist Party). Mussolini formed groups of marginalized ex-servicemen into squadristi. As their numbers grew, the squadristi were reorganized into the Milizia Volontaria per la Sicuressa Nazionale, or MVSN, which would later serve as Mussolini’s national security apparatus. Dressed in black shirts or sweaters, the squadristi earned the nickname â€Å"Blackshirts.† The March on Rome In the summer of 1922, the Blackshirts made a punitive march through the provinces of Ravenna, Forli, and Ferrara in northern Italy. It was a night of terror; squads burned down the headquarters and homes of every member of both socialist and communist organizations. By September 1922, the Blackshirts controlled most of northern Italy. Mussolini assembled a Fascist Party conference on October 24, 1922, to discuss a coup de main or â€Å"sneak attack† on the Italian capital of Rome. On October 28, armed squads of Blackshirts marched on Rome. Although badly organized and poorly armed, the move left the parliamentary monarchy of King Victor Emmanuel III in confusion. Mussolini, who had stayed behind in Milan, received an offer from the king to form a coalition government. Mussolini then proceeded to the capital supported by 300,000 men and wearing a black shirt. On October 31, 1922, at the age of 39, Mussolini was sworn in as prime minister of Italy. Il Duce After elections were held, Mussolini controlled enough seats in parliament to appoint himself Il Duce (the leader) of Italy. On January 3, 1925, with the backing of his Fascist majority, Mussolini declared himself dictator of Italy. For a decade, Italy prospered in peace. However, Mussolini was intent on turning Italy into an empire and to do that the country needed a colony. In October 1935, Italy invaded Ethiopia. The conquest was brutal. Other European countries criticized Italy, especially for the nations use of mustard gas. In May 1936, Ethiopia surrendered and Mussolini had his empire. This was the height of Mussolinis popularity; it all went downhill from there. Mussolini and Hitler Out of all the countries in Europe, Germany had been the only one to support Mussolinis attack on Ethiopia. At that time, Germany was led by Adolf Hitler, who had formed his own fascist organization, the National Socialist German Worker’s Party (commonly called the Nazi  Party). Hitler admired Mussolini; Mussolini, on the other hand, did not like Hitler at first. However, Hitler continued to support and back Mussolini, such as during the war in Ethiopia, which eventually swayed Mussolini into an alliance with him. In 1938, Italy passed the Manifesto of Race, which stripped Jews in Italy of their Italian citizenship, removed Jews from government and teaching jobs, and banned intermarriage. Italy was following in the footsteps of Nazi Germany. On May 22, 1939, Mussolini entered into the â€Å"Pact of Steel† with Hitler, which essentially tied the two countries in the event of war- and war was soon to come. World War II On September 1, 1939, Germany invaded Poland, initiating the Second World War. On June 10, 1940, after witnessing Germany’s decisive victories in Poland and France, Mussolini issued a declaration of war on France and Britain. It was clear from the very beginning, however, that Mussolini was not an equal partner with Hitler- and Mussolini did not like that. Over time, Mussolini became frustrated both with Hitlers successes and with the fact that Hitler kept most of his military plans a secret from him. Mussolini looked for a means of emulating Hitler’s accomplishments without letting Hitler know about his plans. Against the advice of his army commanders, Mussolini ordered an attack against the British in Egypt in September 1940. After initial successes, the attack stalled and German troops were sent to reinforce the deteriorating Italian positions. Embarrassed by his armies’ failure in Egypt, Mussolini, against the advice of Hitler, attacked Greece on October 28, 1940. Six weeks later, this attack stalled as well. Defeated, Mussolini was forced to ask the German dictator for assistance. On April 6, 1941, Germany invaded both Yugoslavia and Greece, ruthlessly conquering both countries and rescuing Mussolini from defeat. Italy Revolts Despite Nazi Germanys victories in the early years of World War II, the tide eventually turned against Germany and Italy. By the summer of 1943, with Germany bogged down in a war of attrition with Russia, Allied forces began bombing Rome. Members of the Italian Fascist council turned against Mussolini. They convened and moved to have the king resume his constitutional powers. Mussolini was arrested and sent to the mountain resort of Campo Imperatore in Abruzzi. On September 12, 1943, Mussolini was rescued from imprisonment by a German glider team commanded by Otto Skorzey. He was flown to Munich and met with Hitler shortly thereafter. Ten days later, by order of Hitler, Mussolini was installed as head of the Italian Social Republic in Northern Italy, which remained under German control. Death On April 27, 1945, with Italy and Germany on the brink of defeat, Mussolini attempted to flee to Spain. On the afternoon of April 28, on their way to Switzerland to board a plane, Mussolini and his mistress Claretta Petacci were captured by Italian partisans. Driven to the gates of the Villa Belmonte, they were shot to death by a partisan firing squad. The corpses of Mussolini, Petacci, and other members of their party were driven by truck to the Piazza Loreto on April 29, 1945. Mussolinis body was dumped ​in the road and people of the local neighborhood abused his corpse. Some time later, the bodies of Mussolini and Petacci were hung upside down in front of a fueling station. Although they were initially buried anonymously in the Musocco cemetery in Milan, the Italian government allowed Mussolini’s remains to be re-interred in the family crypt near Verano di Costa on August 31, 1957. Legacy Although Italian Fascism was defeated during World War II, Mussolini has inspired a number of neo-fascist and far-right organizations in Italy and abroad, including the People of Freedom party and the Italian Social Movement. His life has been the subject of several documentaries and dramatic films, including Vincere and Benito. Sources Bosworth, R. J. B.  Mussolini. Bloomsbury Academic, 2014.Hibbert, Christopher.  Benito Mussolini: a Biography. Penguin, 1965.

Monday, October 21, 2019

Free Essays on Virtue Aristotle

Aristotle defined virtue as the excellence of the soul, and happiness is the virtuous activity of the soul. In the moderate, self-controlled and courageous, everything is in harmony with the voice of reason. Aristotle differentiated intellectual virtues from ethical virtues. Intellectual virtues are developed by teaching; ethical virtues are formed by habit (ethos). Virtues are not implanted in us by nature nor are they contrary to nature, for we are equipped by nature to receive them and can develop them by habitual practice. Thus we become just by acting justly, self-controlled by controlling ourselves, and courageous by acting bravely. Others may become undisciplined and short-tempered by acting in those ways. Thus habits developed in childhood make a considerable difference. Aristotle noted that the purpose of this study is not to know what virtue is but to become good; thus we must act according to right reason. Aristotle observed that ethical qualities are destroyed by defect and by excess. Just as too much or too little food destroys health, the same applies to courage and moderation. The one who fears everything becomes a coward, while the one who fears nothing acts recklessly. Whoever revels in every pleasure is undisciplined, while those who avoid every pleasure are insensitive. Virtuous behavior is reinforcing. Abstaining from pleasures results in moderation, and the practice of moderation helps one to abstain from pleasures. Enduring fear makes one courageous, and acting bravely makes one more able to endure fear. These pleasures and pains test virtue, which can be developed or destroyed by whether it is practiced or not. Yet avoiding pleasures and enduring pains must be of the right kind done at the right time and place and in the right manner. Choice is determined by what is noble, beneficial, and pleasurable and their opposites of what is base, harmful, and painful. Ethical action requires knowledge of what one is doing... Free Essays on Virtue Aristotle Free Essays on Virtue Aristotle Aristotle defined virtue as the excellence of the soul, and happiness is the virtuous activity of the soul. In the moderate, self-controlled and courageous, everything is in harmony with the voice of reason. Aristotle differentiated intellectual virtues from ethical virtues. Intellectual virtues are developed by teaching; ethical virtues are formed by habit (ethos). Virtues are not implanted in us by nature nor are they contrary to nature, for we are equipped by nature to receive them and can develop them by habitual practice. Thus we become just by acting justly, self-controlled by controlling ourselves, and courageous by acting bravely. Others may become undisciplined and short-tempered by acting in those ways. Thus habits developed in childhood make a considerable difference. Aristotle noted that the purpose of this study is not to know what virtue is but to become good; thus we must act according to right reason. Aristotle observed that ethical qualities are destroyed by defect and by excess. Just as too much or too little food destroys health, the same applies to courage and moderation. The one who fears everything becomes a coward, while the one who fears nothing acts recklessly. Whoever revels in every pleasure is undisciplined, while those who avoid every pleasure are insensitive. Virtuous behavior is reinforcing. Abstaining from pleasures results in moderation, and the practice of moderation helps one to abstain from pleasures. Enduring fear makes one courageous, and acting bravely makes one more able to endure fear. These pleasures and pains test virtue, which can be developed or destroyed by whether it is practiced or not. Yet avoiding pleasures and enduring pains must be of the right kind done at the right time and place and in the right manner. Choice is determined by what is noble, beneficial, and pleasurable and their opposites of what is base, harmful, and painful. Ethical action requires knowledge of what one is doing...

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Oral and Verbal - Commonly Confused Words

Oral and Verbal - Commonly Confused Words The adjective oral means pertaining to speech or to the mouth. (The homophone aural, by the way, refers to listening and hearing.) The adjective verbal means pertaining to words, whether written or spoken (though verbal is sometimes treated as a synonym for oral). See the usage notes below. In traditional grammar, the noun verbal refers to a verb form that functions as a noun or a modifier rather than as a verb. Examples of Oral and Verbal Oral language has existed much longer than written language, and most people speak more often than they read or write. (Elizabeth Coelho, Adding English: A Guide to Teaching in Multilingual Classrooms, 2004)Although candidates with defective foreign speech were likely to be screened out early on by teacher training programs, even well-spoken Jewish immigrant girls frequently failed the oral exam. (Joyce Antler, The Journey Home: Jewish Women and the American Century. The Free Press, 1997)Copy is the verbal portion of an advertisement and may include headlines, sub-headlines, body copy, and signature. (William Pride and O.C. Ferrell, Marketing, 2006)Jargon is the verbal sleight of hand that makes the old hat seem newly fashionable. (David Lehman, Signs of the Times, 1991) Usage Notes [A]ll language is verbal, but only speech is oral. (Henry Hitchings, The Language Wars: A History of Proper English. Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2011)Oral communication is speech, conversation. Verbal ability is ones skill with words, and the verbal section of the SAT, the college entrance examination, tests a high school students knowledge of written language. . . .Verbal and oral are now so inextricably confounded that the tautological phrase verbal and written has become entrenched: The position requires . . . strong verbal and written communication skills (RenewableEnergyWorld.com) . . ..This may seem like a morass, but dont despair. Avoiding this accident of style is easier than you may think. Just remember that oral refers to spoken words, written refers to written words, and verbal refers to anything expressed in words, whether spoken or written. (Charles Harrington Elster, The Accidents of Style: Good Advice on How Not to Write Badly. St. Martins Press, 2010) Verbal  Redundancies The misuse of verbal for oral has a long history and is still common. Nevertheless, the distinction is worth fighting for, especially in legal prose. . . .Because verbal is always used in reference to words, verbal definition is redundant, as there can be no definition without words. . . . Similarly, verbal is redundant in such phrases as verbal promise, verbal denial, verbal affirmation, and verbal criticism, as these activities usually cannot occur without words. (Bryan A. Garner, A Dictionary of Modern Legal Usage, 2nd ed. Oxford University Press, 1995) Practice Exercise Test your knowledge of the difference between oral and verbal by filling in the correct word. (a) Like Corso, Ray had spent his time in jail reading, writing poetry, and educating himself. His poetry was designed to be the _____ equivalent of jazz. (Bill Morgan, The Typewriter Is Holy: The Complete, Uncensored History of the Beat Generation, 2010)(b) It would be unlawful for an employer to administer a written employment test to an individual who has informed the employer, prior to the administration of the test, that he is dyslexic and unable to read. In such a case, the employer should reasonably accommodate the applicants disability by administering an _____ test as an alternative. (Margaret P. Spencer, The Americans With Disabilities Act: Description and Analysis. Human Resource Management and the Americans With Disabilities Act, 1995) Answers to Practice Exercises (a) Like Corso, Ray had spent his time in jail reading, writing poetry, and educating himself. His poetry was designed to be the  verbal  equivalent of jazz. (Bill Morgan,  The Typewriter Is Holy: The Complete, Uncensored History of the Beat Generation, 2010)(b) It would be unlawful for an employer to administer a written employment test to an individual who has informed the employer, prior to the administration of the test, that he is dyslexic and unable to read. In such a case, the employer should reasonably accommodate the applicants disability by administering an  oral  test as an alternative. (Margaret P. Spencer, The Americans With Disabilities Act: Description and Analysis.  Human Resource Management and the Americans With Disabilities Act, 1995) Answers to Practice Exercises: oral and verbal. (a) Like Corso, Ray had spent his time in jail reading, writing poetry, and educating himself. His poetry was designed to be the verbal equivalent of jazz.(Bill Morgan, The Typewriter Is Holy: The Complete, Uncensored History of the Beat Generation, 2010)(b) It would be unlawful for an employer to administer a written employment test to an individual who has informed the employer, prior to the administration of the test, that he is dyslexic and unable to read. In such a case, the employer should reasonably accommodate the applicants disability by administering an oral test as an alternative.(Margaret P. Spencer, The Americans With Disabilities Act: Description and Analysis. Human Resource Management and the Americans With Disabilities Act, 1995) Glossary of Usage: Index of Commonly Confused Words 200 Homonyms, Homophones, and Homographs

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Stress in Psychology Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Stress in Psychology - Research Paper Example â€Å"Even as modern suburban living offers an environment conducive to family lifestyle: ample living space, good schools, and relative safety, the suburban lifestyle is accompanied by substantial amounts of stress† (Cappell, Et al, 2001). The study investigates levels of stress for over 500 residents living in suburbs of Chicago, by measuring various demographic factors, such as gender, age, age of children, employment, number of hours worked each week, amount of time spent caring for the home, amount of time spent caring for children and number of hours of sleep each night. Levels of stress are measured by the number of stress related symptoms survey respondents report, for each factor. Overall, married males with families, living in the suburbs, who work reasonable hours and contribute little to household chores experience lower levels of stress, according to Cappell, et al (2001). Brown, D. & James, G. (2000). Physiological stress responses in Filipino-American immigrant nurses: The effects of residence time, lifestyle and job strain. Psychosomatic Medicine, 62: 294-400. Retrieved from http://www.hawaii.edu/hivandaids/Physiological_Stress_Responses_in_Filipino-American_Immigrant_Nurses.pdf. The study investigates blood pressure levels among immigrants to Hawaii, of Filipino origin. Blood pressure is assumed to be a predictor of physiological stress. Respondents in the study are nurses and nurse aids, who are Filipino immigrants. The use of blood pressure as a stress response shows a pattern that the authors believe cannot be accounted for, by physical demands of work. Results indicate that respondents who have lived and worked in the United States longer, have higher average blood pressures, than those who have been in the country a shorter period of time. â€Å"Women who resided in the United States longer had significantly smaller dips in their blood pressure during sleep† (Brown & James, 2000). Blood pressure normally dips during sleep. Th e assumption is that those with smaller dips in blood pressure are suffering from a higher level of stress. Respondents were also given questionnaires to measure their perceived lifestyle, compared to both Filipino and American lifestyle, using a scale. Respondents rated themselves as generally having a lower perceived American lifestyle. The implication for results of this research, is that acculturation brings about higher levels of physiological stress response. Steckel, R. (2005). Young adult mortality following severe physiological stress in childhood: Skeletal evidence. Economics and Human Biology, 3: 314-28. Retrieved from http://web.econ.ohio-state.edu/rsteckel/VITA/2005%20Young%20Adult%20Mortality.pdf The author uses skeletal remains to suggest a link between childhood physiological stress and adult heath. The research conducted is an investigation of skeletal findings presented by groups of anthropologists. Steckel bases his research on previous studies that link childhood health to adult success and growth (stature) to adult wellness. Femur length is a proven method among anthropologists, for determining stature. â€Å"In a large collaborative study that investigated skeletal health over the past several thousand years, these included three indictors of health during childhood (stature, linear enamel defects, and skeletal signs of anemia)† (Steckel, 2005).. Stature is also included as an important

Banking on a Beard Award Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Banking on a Beard Award - Assignment Example Decision making process I have used a decision tree as a support tool to show possible consequences and also chance outcomes, resources costs and losses. I have used the decision identify a most likely strategy to reach a goal (Goetz T 2011). In addition, it is used to calculate the conditional probabilities. Before making any conclusion, I have looked at the scenario at hand and have realized that there are different points that my friend has not synthesized. It is also noticeable that the starting of the restaurant may be due to vague opinions. This is so because research has to be carried out before undertaking any business venture. It emerges that Jennifer, enjoys her current career and her drive are to manage her own business. She is also inclined towards entrepreneur ventures and adds that it is a way of improving her personal value. Her justification and judgment depends on her desire to manage her business. During my analysis, I have realized that sixty percent of business ve ntures into restaurants fail within their first three birthdays. It is also noticeable that if Jennifer starts the restaurant business she will use her saving worth 250 dollars. If Jennifer remains in her current job, she will be eligible for a promotion whereby she will be entitled to fifty percent increase in price. Conclusion According to the decision tree the probability of Jennifer retaining her current job as a banker is 0.333. The probability also of getting a promotion and termination is also 0.333. If Jennifer get a promotion after a year, the amount of money she will get, will be greater than any other option. It is also likely that if she retains her job, she may also retain her current position as a banker. This means, she will not get promotion but, this is not a dreadful thing since she will earn slightly lower, than the restaurant business. She will also retain her savings unlike when she starts the business since she will top up the bank loan. There is a 0.333 chance that Jennifer may also loose her job meaning that she will have no earnings. The other option with Jennifer is to start her restaurant business; this may be risk taking since more than half businesses fail before their 3rd birthday. The probability that the restaurant business will flourish with a huge success is 0.1 or ten percent chance. It is a pretty low chance to act on but if the business succeeds Jennifer will earn a large profit. The profit is greater than her current career job even if she does not get a promotion. The moderate success probability is 0.3; this is thirty in percentage scale. The probability is below the average or half. There is a large probability that the business will close. This accounts to sixty percent. Jennifer should take caution when analyzing or rather making a decision whether or not to start the restaurant business. In order to break even, the restaurant should be big enough to produce sales exceeding $ 200,000 so that she manages to pay the ban k loan, and return the money lent to the business and also get a substantial profit. Recommendations The recommendation that I would give Jennifer regarding her desire to quit her job, and start her restaurant is to remain in her job, and not to start her restaurant. This is because in the banking job, the money she would get annually when promoted much greater than what she would get from the

Friday, October 18, 2019

New Gillette Razor Pricing For Asian Market Essay

New Gillette Razor Pricing For Asian Market - Essay Example Gillette Research and Development has engineered a new sanitary razor product, and Gillette Information Management aims to provide decision support for the purpose of pricing the new product. Here, we investigate the market for shaving products with respect to this endeavour. Gillette Information Management has collected 90 relevant observations. With that data, we produced the necessary descriptive statistics and histograms about price by gender, number of cartridge blades, and country of purchase. We apply the mean and median to describe the central tendency of data and the standard deviation to describe the variability of data (Table 1). The coefficient of variation compares variability across the sample (Table 1). The data is within the range of normal distribution because Kurtosis and Skewness are both between 2.0 and -2.0 (Table 1). Female razors constituted over 70% of the sample. They are an average of .36 more expensive than the entire sample. The coefficient of variation, Skewness and Kurtosis were all comparable to the sample at large (Table 2). Male razors are an average of .90 less expensive than the entire sample. Skewness and Kurtosis were all comparable to the sample at large, but the coefficient of variation was over 20 percentage points lower (Table 3). A histogram of the data reveals a dissimilar trend in the data where there are less logical bins than the female products prices and the yield. Each bin seems to have an outlying frequency, and the minimum is .80 lower than the yield’s (Figure 3). Our method is the application of descriptive statistics and histograms to answer the certain question that will assist us in determining the price. We note the data set is almost completely left-skewed. Most of the products are aimed at women so our packaging should target that demographic. The results are limited because of the high coefficient of variance of the yield.  

Quality Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

Quality - Research Paper Example The CNE article uses reliable data through showing consultations with the IOM report of 2000 and the studies of James in 2013. For instance, by referring to the studies such as that of James, it is clear that the research conducted is of high quality, reliable, and valid. The assumption is that the study involves the identification of preventable adverse events that are readily applicable in the hospital contexts. For example, some of the preventable adverse events encompass the errors of omission, errors of context, errors of commission, errors of communication, and those of context. The experimental design used in this article entails several measures concerning the patient safety and culture. Besides, the experiment includes varied elements of the patient safety culture that undergo developments. The design in this context gains confidence by using numerous tools to ascertain the safety of the patients. Some of the tools involved include the safety attitude questionnaires, safety cultural surveys, and the safety cultural improvement tool. There is tailoring of the instruments to various individuals to gain a broader perspective of the issue in question. Contextually, the tools targeted the hospital staff, the patients, and the medical personnel. Thus, it is a good design for the analysis of the safety of patients in the health care setup. Ulrich & Kear (2014) have managed to use accurate data and statistics from recognized studies and reports. For instance, the IOM report indicates the numbers of people injured and those that died due to preventable adverse events. In spite of the accurate use of this data, the research fails to carry out a critical statistical analysis to ascertain and give feedback to the individuals that participated in the surveys and questionnaires. In summary, the article provides an account of what safety has entailed in the US after the patient safety took the center stage of the health care system. It reflects on

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Discussion Questions Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 17

Discussion Questions - Assignment Example The second part of the statement states that police have enough experience to differentiate between offenders and those who have not committed a crime. If this is true then police officers have simply become biased against certain individuals. This is because police officers have created a profile of a criminal on the basis of their race, age and gender and they follow this profile to make arrests and detail suspects. This activity of profiling individuals has backfired and police officers are now being suspected of being biased against people belonging to certain age groups, race as well as gender. In a research conducted by Kochel et al. the researchers identified that race of an individual has a major impact on the decision of whether to arrest them or not (Kochel, 2011). The researchers prove that people belonging to the black race had a higher statistical probability of being arrested as compared to the whites. The UCR as well as the NCVS are two distinct procedures through which the government of United States collect and record data on crimes and criminal activity. The data collected by UCR is managed by the defense agency of FBI and this data includes information on the number of arrests for different crimes (fbi.gov, 2014). The data that is used to prepare statistical reports of UCR is provided by law enforcement agencies that operate at the local as well as the federal level. On the other hand the information that is collected for the purpose of recording data in NCVS contains data that has been collected through direct and indirect victims of crimes and it contains information on all crimes except crimes that are commercial in nature and homicide. The data that is collected by the UCR is collected on the basis of arrests that have been made by different law enforcement agencies. The information that is collected through UCR has a

Human Resource Staffing Principal Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Human Resource Staffing Principal - Essay Example Staffing, in fact efficient and dedicated staffing has been always a focal point of HR experts around the globe in the quest of sorting out the best and the perfect method to staff men for the job. Staffing is the process of finding the best of the human resources available to satiate the needs of growing or even sustain modern organizations. Small or large, every organization undergoes a process of staffing, and this is what makes staffing and important aspect of every organization (Morgen Witzel, 2004). The first step towards staffing is having a strategy that will be the basic guidelines in the entire staffing process. Developing a staffing strategy means analyzing the short and long term goals of the organization and then developing the positions that are required to achieve those goals. This way the organization managers know what exactly is required and what will be the suitable candidate. This also makes realize the remuneration and the additional facilities that are provided to the employee. The most fundamental issue that is haunting the top managers is finding the right work force that will not only fulfill the requirements of the job but also compete with other brands in the market. For this, the HR staffers develop a strategy of what type of staff they need and what are the sources that will satiate those demands. Developing a staffing tactic also requires identifying the key human resource areas and also realizing the sources of substitutes if a position goes vacant unexpectedly. After the development of a definite strategy comes the stage where the position is defined and the resources for that position is delineated. For example, an organization dealing in motorcycle sales is expanding and opening a new office in another state. The strategy requires making two fundamental decisions, would the organization’s own staff will be managing the sales in all the cities in that state or will he organization be letting our dealerships to local inves tors. How will those sales managers/dealers be managed and where to get the people interested in doing those jobs. Who will be performing what job and what salary and other benefits will he get in return all are delineated and this is what constitutes developing a HR staffing strategy. There are multiple types of organizations according to working styles and this is what determines they models of HR they have. Most of the organizations like the sales department of Apple or DHL couriers simply can not do without people to people interaction and thus require people to manage the reins of the organizations despite the fact that most of the 9-5 jobs are being automated. However, services like the airports and hospitals cannot be just closed down at 5pm because the shift is over, these require to be working in shifts and therefore have three shifts of eight hours each. Regular staff allows for the regular work to be done on regular basis and thus brings consistency in the work done. With growing interdependence on technology and unavailability of efficient work force everywhere, many organizations even rely on telecommuting or freelancing to get results. Companies like Cisco, Intel and Deloitte have a reliable number of telecommuters. Most of the internet and computer based jobs are filled by telecommuters, this way the employers have to pay only for the work done, reduce costs and achieve

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Discussion Questions Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 17

Discussion Questions - Assignment Example The second part of the statement states that police have enough experience to differentiate between offenders and those who have not committed a crime. If this is true then police officers have simply become biased against certain individuals. This is because police officers have created a profile of a criminal on the basis of their race, age and gender and they follow this profile to make arrests and detail suspects. This activity of profiling individuals has backfired and police officers are now being suspected of being biased against people belonging to certain age groups, race as well as gender. In a research conducted by Kochel et al. the researchers identified that race of an individual has a major impact on the decision of whether to arrest them or not (Kochel, 2011). The researchers prove that people belonging to the black race had a higher statistical probability of being arrested as compared to the whites. The UCR as well as the NCVS are two distinct procedures through which the government of United States collect and record data on crimes and criminal activity. The data collected by UCR is managed by the defense agency of FBI and this data includes information on the number of arrests for different crimes (fbi.gov, 2014). The data that is used to prepare statistical reports of UCR is provided by law enforcement agencies that operate at the local as well as the federal level. On the other hand the information that is collected for the purpose of recording data in NCVS contains data that has been collected through direct and indirect victims of crimes and it contains information on all crimes except crimes that are commercial in nature and homicide. The data that is collected by the UCR is collected on the basis of arrests that have been made by different law enforcement agencies. The information that is collected through UCR has a

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

LIFE FROM THE INSIDE OUT Article Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

LIFE FROM THE INSIDE OUT - Article Example Stevens is also director of the Golden Apple Art Residency located in Harrington, Maine. The following paper seeks to describe one painting from these paintings, in addition to what the painting means. The painting chosen for this paper is Slipping into the Velvet Past. This painting is shown in the picture below. Slipping into the Velvet Past is a painting created in 2011 whose medium is an oil painting on canvas. The painting is a large-scale painting from the series of paintings Journey: Life from the Inside out, measuring a height of 48 inches and a width of 60 inches width. The painting is a visual metaphor that describes various psychological stages that happen in a journey that persons embark on. It is a unique narrative that is also figurative. A woman referred to as Annara, a female figure who depicts the hope experienced during a journey, is telling the story narrated in this painting. She is seen resting with a white mask on her face and wearing a white dress. She rests curled up in the middle of dried velvety fallen leaves in a jungle. She depicts a sweet, innocent girl. Annara is seen in this painting with her eyes closed, as she peacefully awaits the unfolding of her life (www.ferris.edu, 2012). The young girl describes youth and the anticipation of life as it unfolds, waiting to experience the endless possibilities that await her. As a young person, Annara has little personal history of her life or any past failures that could stand in her way or discourage her. She is also a young person with no sense of danger to warn her of her wonderful future. All she has is her imaginations to impel and propel her to her future ahead. She is, therefore, in a pure and clean state and surrounded by hope and promise. This is demonstrated by her surrounding, an environment of natural coexistence that is not polluted by modern technology. As she lies down curled up like a baby, Annara describes fragility and delicateness in

Monday, October 14, 2019

The Cahokian civilization Essay Example for Free

The Cahokian civilization Essay The Cahokian civilization, one of the largest Native American tribes, was indigenous to the Midwest. Cahokia is also known as â€Å"the city history forgot.† This complex and sophisticated society challenges the stereotypical beliefs of Native American as being primitive, ignorant savages. The Cahokian civilization provides the basis for political, economic, and social developments that â€Å"changed the course of human history.† ( Timothy Pauketat) After reading Timothy Pauketat’s insightful essay, â€Å" Cahokia: A Pre-Columbian American City†, I was intrigued by the Cahokia’s people and culture. This society quickly evolved from a village to an elaborate city. The Cahokian complex architectural aspects included better homes, pyramids and plazas. Through expansion, their beliefs and customs were diffused into other civilizations. Due to warfare, many complex advancements were designed to protect the central city. An elaborate 15, 000 log wall was built to defend their city. The advanced Cahokian society was developed prior to any European interaction. Having known very little about such a complex and elaborate civilization, I was intrigued by many of the Cahokian developments and beliefs. Their centralized authority, the nature and the extent of their influence over vast areas, are aspects of many other European civilizations. This essay challenged many of my prior ideas and beliefs about the Native Americans. The city planning and the organization of the city of Cahokia resembled the city of ancient Rome. The Cahokian civilization used the method of Cahokianization to expand and spread their ideologies throughout their territory. Similarly, the ancient Romans used the method of Romanization to expand and spread their empire. Both societies developed and utilized similar military tactics and strategies. Under the rule of Constantine I, the Romans built a wall to protect their city from invaders, the Cahokians built a wall made of logs for protection. These two distant civilizations demonstrated similar ideologies and strategies. I have gained more insight and knowledge after reading Timothy Pauketat’s essay on the intricate city of Cahokia. It is puzzling that such a complex society that had lasted for about 250 years just vanished. Many archeologists have different ideas on the collapse and disappearance of Cahokia. It is incomprehensible that such an elaborate society vanished and is forgotten in many history books. The civilization of Cahokia was advanced, complex and sophisticated. This innovative tribe challenges the European ideologies of viewing Native Americans as primitive and ignorant. This civilization provided the economic, social and political standards that was implemented in other civilizations.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Essay --

At the beginning of this century the German nation was, in all respects, one of the more civilized worlds. However, under the rule of Hitler, he came to use all their skill and strength to split support and extend a tyranny that mocked all the values of the civilization. The followers of Hitler, the Nazis, despised freedom tolerance, reasoned dialogue and simple human decency; they made use of the lie, mass hysteria and terror; they tortured, enslaved and wiped out millions of innocent people. If Hitler had won it is possible that it would have ended with the civilization in Europe and, although he died defeated, the atrocities that took place between 1933 and 1945, under Nazi rule, have been copied, too often, by others. National Socialism (or Nazism) had many points in common with fascism. However, its roots were typically German: authoritarianism and expand military of Prussian Heritage; the German romantic tradition opposed to rationalism, liberalism and democracy; various racist doctrines that Nordic peoples - the pure Aryan called - were not only physically superior to other races, but they were also their culture and morals; as well as certain philosophical doctrines, especially those of Friedrich Nietzsche, who idolized the State or uplifting worship superior individuals, which is exempted from abide by the conventional limitations. Among the theorists and planners of National Socialism was General Karl Ernst Haushofer, who exerted a great influence on the Germany foreign policy. Alfred Rosenberg, editor and leader of the Nazi party, formulated the racial theories based on the work of the writer Houston Stewart Chamberlain. The financial Hjalmar Schacht was responsible for develop and put int o practice much of the economi... ... socialist doctrine, containing in addition, propaganda techniques, and plans for the conquest of Germany and, later, Europe. Mein Kampf became the ideological foundation of National Socialism a few years later. This book, which would later give it to all German couples on their wedding day, as if was an outside of the Bible, consists of a series of rhetorical speech on a few issues such as nationalism, racism and the anti-democratic theories, together with a series of projects of future actions. This last part describes his intention to manipulate the masses by means of propaganda, always emphasizing that to achieve power, is worth everything, predicting a great global battle by the superiority of the race with a cynical frankness. Germany had to get rid of the restrictions of the Treaty of Versailles; it had to attack Russia to destroy communism. The truth is that

Saturday, October 12, 2019

The Latino Culture in America Essay -- Cultural Identity Essays

The Latino Culture in America Latinos have struggled to discover their place inside of a white America for too many years. Past stereotypes and across racism they have fought to belong. Still America is unwilling to open her arms to them. Instead she demands assimilation. With her pot full of stew she asks, "What flavor will you add to this brew?" Some question, some rebel, and others climb in. I argue that it is not the Latino who willingly agreed to partake in this stew. It is America who forced her ideals upon them through mass media and stale history. However her effort has failed, for they have refused to melt. The struggle to find a place inside an un-welcoming America has forced the Latino to recreate one. The Latino feels out of place, torn from the womb inside of America's reality because she would rather use it than know it (Paz 226-227). In response, the Mexican women planted the seeds of home inside the corral*. These tended and potted plants became her burrow of solace and place of acceptance. In the comfort of the suns slices and underneath the orange scents, the women were free. Still the questions pounded in the rhythm of street side whispers. The outside stare thundered in pulses, you are different it said. Instead of listening she tried to instill within her children the pride of language, song, and culture. Her roots weave soul into the stubborn soil and strength grew with each blossom of the fig tree (Goldsmith). The adolescent rebelled. "Speaking out is an exercise of privilege. Speaking out takes practice. Silence ensures invisibility. Silence provides protection (Montoya 282)." Graffiti tagged cracks seeped in blood, it remind the young of their battle with an invisible division. In Octavio P... ...wler-Salamini and Mary Kay Vaughan, eds Creating Spaces, Shaping Transitions: Women of the Mexican Countryside, 1850-1990 Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1994. Montoya, Margret E. "Masks and Identify," and "Masks and Resistance," in The Latino/a Condition: A Critical Reader New York: New York University Press, 1998. Paz, Octavio. "Pachucos and Other Extremes" in The Labyrinth of Solitude and The Other Mexico New York: Grove Press, 1985 Bradbury, Ray. "The Wonderful Ice Cream Suit" (originally published in 1958) in The Chicano: From Caricature to Self-Portrait New York: A mentor Book from New American Library, Times Mirror, 1971 *meaning garden, the experience of gardening in central Mexico (Goldsmith) *Many of the juvenile gangs that have formed in the United States in recent years are reminiscent of the post -war pachucos (Paz, 14).

Friday, October 11, 2019

The Design Argument – as Level

Outline the Key Concepts of the Design Argument [21 marks] The design argument is also referred to at the Teleological Argument stemmed from the Greek work ‘Telos’ meaning end or purpose. It is an ‘A posterior’ argument (from experience) based on our empirical senses and it is synthetic meaning that it is from observation. The argument is also inductive meaning there a number of possible conclusions. The main basis of the Teleological argument is based on a designer commonly known as ‘the classical God of theism’ (hereafter referred to as God)The outline of the design argument is that the universe has order and purpose and is regular, the complexities of the universe demonstrate some form of design, a design requires a designer, and this designer is God. This however is an inductive leap meaning that the Design argument is valid but not sound. The key concepts of the argument are that the universe has order, there are laws and regularities, the universe has purpose, and therefore the objects in the universe appear to work towards and end or purpose.The universe has benefit, meaning that it provides all that is necessary for life and more and finally, the suitability for human life, as the Universe provides ideal environments and conditions for human life to exist and flourish. Like the cosmological argument, the design argument goes back to Plato, who stated that the human body, with all its particles and elements, must owe its origin to ‘the royal mind soul and mind in the nature of Zeus’.The theory of the Design argument was first put forward by Socrates who was a Greek Philosopher who lived in 400 BC, one of the main strengths of Socrates proposing this theory is this means it is a Pre Christian idea and also that it has withstood the test of time. Socrates said ‘With such signs of forethought in the design of living creatures how can there be any doubt that they are the work of choice or design. â₠¬â„¢ Thomas Aquinas who lived in the 13th century furthered the idea of Socrates Design Argument; he wrote a book called the ‘Summa Theologica’ and was strongly influenced by Aristotle.Aquinas rejected the possibility of an infinite regress of movers and causes to explain the existence of movers and causes to explain the existence of mutable beings. Aquinas proposed 5 ways to prove the existence of God, the unmoved mover, the uncaused case, Possibility and Necessity, Goodness Truth and Nobility and the Teleological Argument. He called these the fifth way and is ‘’from the governance of things’’. Aquinas also proposed the theory of design qua regularity, ‘That we call God’.Aquinas maintained that since such behaviour patterns rarely change, and their end result is beneficial, there must be a purpose to them, and if non-rational beings can work towards such a goal, something must be directing them to do so. ‘Now whatever lacks knowledge cannot move towards an end, unless directed, and this being we call God. ’ He also championed the Analogy of the arrow directed by the archer showing that in order for something to end somewhere, there must be someone causing the movement, the arrow could not have ended us on the board on its own.William Paley, an 18th Century Philosopher continued to develop the principles of the Design argument, showing many more extended features to Socrates original concept. Paley championed the theory of design qua purpose and that a design requires a designer. ‘’The world is too complex and well-designed to have come about by chance. It seems to have been planned by an intelligent mind for a special purpose. ’’ For Paley, the world is like a machine made up of intricate parts, all of which worked towards an end for the benefit of the whole. Paley proposed the analogy of the watch and the watch maker. ’Suppose you had never seen a watch before . One day when you are out walking, you find one on the ground. You would instantly see how complex it is. ’’ His theory was that if you came across a watch then it is so intricate therefore it must have been designed. Therefore the universe is so fine-tuned that there must have been a designer for this too. It is obvious that both are not there by chance. Another analogy for this is the eye is designed so well for the purpose of seeing. A designer gave each part of the universe a special purpose. Paley makes the inductive leap to say that this designer is God.The Anthropic principle is a key feature of the Design argument and suits the theory of Design qua Regularity proposed by F. R. Tennant showing that science and religion are one in the same. He argues that human life flourishes on earth, therefore there must have been a supreme designer, that designer being God. Tennant accepts the scientific reasoning of evolution as a fine balance of ‘’fine tuningà ¢â‚¬â„¢Ã¢â‚¬â„¢ and God’s chosen way to support life. Tennant also argues that ‘’the world could so easily have been chaotic’’ and that ‘’the universe is not chaotic, nature is the outcome of intelligent design. ’ Others argue that the earth runs so smoothly and everything works together therefore ‘’The world is compatible with a single throw of a dice and common sense is not foolish in suspecting the dice has been loaded’’ cited by Vardy. James Lovelock of the 20th century furthered the anthropic principle in ways of the Gaia Hypothesis, ‘’engineering on a planetary scale’’ cited by Vardy. He suggests that the oxygen content in the air, the salt content in the sea and the temperature of the earth are all precise in order for human life to flourish.If the oxygen content in the air were to be 12% less no fire would be able to burn, if the oxygen content were 25% more, then no f ire would ever go out, however over the last 25 million years, the oxygen content has remained at 21% which is perfect to sustain human life. One other person who championed the idea of the Anthropic principle is Arthur Brown from the 20th century, he says that science shows the way in which a designer chose to design, †The ozone gas layer is mighty proof of the creators forethought†¦ Just the right thickness and exactly the correct defence, gives evidence of a plan. ‘ However there are two type of Anthropic principle, the weak Anthropic principle states that conditions on the earth were such that human life adapted to the conditions, for example evolution. The strong anthropic principle revolves around conditions being set up for human life to be introduced, for example a Baby's nursery being all ready for the baby to be introduced into it. In 1986 Freeman Dyson said â€Å"in the universe there are many accidents of physics and astronomy that have worked together for our benefit, it almost seems as if the universe knew we were coming. The weak anthropic principle however states that human life adapted to the conditions of the earth, for example, by way of evolution. This does not eliminate that Evolution means that there was no divine power involved, in the 19th century Archbishop Temple stated â€Å"The doctrine of evolution leaves the argument for an intelligent creator†¦ stronger than it was before. † In the 20th century, Tennant worked alongside Taylor in proposing the aesthetic principle which observes that the universe possess a natural beauty that goes beyond that which is necessary to live.For example art, literature, music all contribute in making the world a nicer place for us to live, we would be able to live without these things however F. R Tennant observes that ‘Nature is not just beautiful in places it is saturated with beauty†¦ from an intelligent point of view beauty seems to be superfluous to have lit tle survival value. ‘ Another example of the aesthetic principle is shown within people and the example of Weary Dunlop, cited by Vardy. Weary Dunlop was an Australian Doctor during World War II who cared for thousands of injured soldiers who showed endless compassion and love.This example shows that humans are not selfish, leading to an intelligent designer creating some humans to have beauty beyond what is necessary. Franciscan Theology also supports the aesthetic principle and stresses the idea of beauty and the beauty within creation; this therefore leads to a direct pointer of God's nature, showing an omnibenevolent and numinous experience. In the 20th century Richard Swinburne furthered the argument of God due to that of Design, by developing the argument of probability as a key concept.He furthered a statement made by Socrates, ‘with such signs of forethought in the design of living creature, how can there be doubt that they are the work of choice or design. †™ Swinburne suggested that the evidence of design and the order in the universe increases the probability of the existence of God. He states that a belief in God is compatible with science. This is due to the theory that without a designer the universe could have been chaotic, the universe seems to be governed therefore order is present, order is more probable and the probability for design is much greater than that of chance.Swinburne uses the parable of the card shuffling machine to show that if a man was locked in a room with 10 card shuffling machines and unless the ten machines all chose an ace of hearts from each of the packs, he would die, however the machine chooses an ace of hearts from each pack. Swinburne says it would not be adequate for the victim to claim that no explanation of the draw is required here. You would have expected the card machines to have been designed that way as the chances of this happening are seemingly almost impossible.Swinburne uses this parable to even say that ‘’the very succession of science is showing us how deeply ordered the natural world is’’ and that ‘’science provides strong grounds for believing that there is a deeper cause in that order. ’’ Harold Morowitz thought that the chances of the universe being ordered in such a way would be the equivalent of throwing four billion penny pieces into the air and all of them landing ‘heads up’. William Ockham developed the theory of Ockham’s razor, and even though not specifically to do with the design argument, he states that ‘’the simplest explanation is usually the best explanation’.Fred Hoyle continued Swinburne’s probability as a way of explaining a need for a designer by proposing that the probability that the universe developed by chance is much the same as if a whirlwind flew threw and junkyard and assembling a Boeing 747. Even though Kant rejects the idea of the des ign argument he even states that ‘it is the oldest, the clearest and most accordant with the common reason of mankind’ and that ‘this proof always deserves to be mentioned with respect’. b. Comment on the view that the strengths outweigh the weaknesses [9 marks]The teleological argument contains many opponents who have found weaknesses within its theory. Epicurus, a Greek Philosopher devised the Epicuran Hypothesis, stating that the universe has come about only by chance and that a number of particles floating around in space, at some point these particles formed together to create a universe, due to there being enough time for the combination of particles to make a universe. He rejects Swinburne’s theory of probability and believes that the chaotic state, by chance, led to order.Sarah Tyler explains this theory in ways of monkeys and typewriters in saying that if an ‘infinite number of monkeys’ were to be given an ‘infinite amount of typewriters’, in time they would eventually ‘produce the entire works of Shakespeare’. However, in my opinion, judging by Epicuran Hypothesis and then Swinburne’s theory of probability, I believe that the strength of Swinburne’s argument outweighs that of Epicurus. Neither can be proven however with what humans know today, Swinburne’s development somewhat seems more probable in explaining how the universe began.I believe that the strengths in this case outweigh the weaknesses of the design argument. The main critic of the Design argument was David Hume in the 18th century, who was an empiricist, therefore based all his arguments of proof. He does not reject the idea of God, however fails to make the inductive leap from having a designer to that designer being God. He says that ‘the world was only the first rude essay of some infant deity who abandoned it afterwards. ’ Hume believes that if there is a God that this God is not necessarily what humans assume him to be, if he is even still in existence.Hume also believes that there could have been a ‘co-operative of lesser god. ’ For example a man who claims he builds his own house does not actually build it but requires others to do the work for him, e. g. a carpenter, electrician. Hume states that humans ‘assume’ what is going on outside the world and beyond, yet we cannot know. Another rejection of the design argument from Hume is that he says the world around us is not perfect yet religious believers claim that God is perfect and unlimited in every way, therefore if a perfect God designed the world, why isn’t it perfect?Hume then furthered his rejection of the Design argument by refuting the use of analogies by saying that they are unsound because God is beyond human understanding therefore anyone who uses Analogies is supporting anthropomorphism and likening God to a human or object, therefore making God less divine. Hu me also says that the world is natural like an animal or vegetables, it is organic and it grows changes and moves. Hume continues to say ‘the world is more organic than mechanic’, likening the world to a carrot. Hume does have many more criticisms on the Design Argument however his main problem with it is due to the inductive leap.Other criticisms of his include not assuming the laws of cause and effect. In my opinion, Hume’s argument for the weaknesses of the design argument is a very strong argument as he considers the theory of God when proposing his ideas. No other person has been able to challenge Hume’s criticism that if the world is not perfect then God cannot be omnipotent, omnibenevolent and omniscient, leading to a gap in the inconsistent triad of God. In my opinion I think that this weakness does have an impact on all other strengths as it is the only one hat I can definitely say is a valid argument and makes sense to me. Another person who oppo ses the Design argument is J. S. Mill in the 19th century, who furthered the work of Hume and goes contrary to the idea of the world being an ordered, beautiful and harmonious place. He looks at the problem of suffering and that as there is so much in the world, this goes against the idea of an all loving, all powerful God. He states that if there were a designer God, he would have control over cosmic forces. ‘’Go straight to their end without regarding whom or what they crush in their road. ’ In my opinion, this weakness is fairly strong as the problem of evil demonstrates a limited God. A God that is wholly good or wholly powerful would not have created evil therefore it has to be one or the other. JS Mill personally believes that this God is good but not all powerful. Charles Darwin of the 19th century, wrote the book ‘Origin of Species’ is another person who refutes the design argument and provided an alternative explanation for the design of wor ld without reference to God, this is the theory of evolution and natural selection, ‘the survival of the fittest. However, I believe that Darwin’s theory of evolution is a weak argument against the existence of a God as it can also be placed into the category of the weak anthropic principle as the way God chose to introduce human beings; however we adapted to the conditions over time. Therefore I believe that Paley as a proponent of the design argument, his theory of there being a designer to design the universe is a much stronger argument than Charles Darwin’s theory of Evolution as there is no explanation as to where evolution began in the first place, so ultimately no conclusion.Richard Dawkins of the 20th century argues that Natural Selection give the appearance of design however we are mistaken into believing that this shows there must be a designer. He opposes Swinburne and Tennant and Taylor and says that nature is random, meaning the world was formed by c hance. He says that ‘’Biology is God’’ and people are lazy therefore made up this ‘’God of the Gaps’’. He says there is ‘’no more evidence for God then there is the Easter Bunny’ and that ‘life has no purpose’ and ‘God is a superfluous hypothesis’.I believe that this weakness to disprove the Design argument is weak as there is no evidence and is trying to disprove one of the earliest theories by comparing it to the Easter Bunny, therefore I feel that this weakness does not outweigh any of the strengths. A. J Ayre as another opponent said ‘unless we can say what the world is like without design we cannot conclude design’. Kant furthered this by saying the world could be chaotic but we perceive it as being ordered.To conclude this argument, the design argument is a religiously ambiguous and Paul Davies makes this clear by stating ‘’this is really a question of your threshold of conviction. It has to be a matter of personal taste whether you regard the accumulated evidence as compelling enough to want to make that inductive leap. ’’ The design argument is eschatologically verifiable. Many people however still are not convinced yet do not reject the argument fully, for example John Wisdom’s parable of the Gardener showing that everyone has different opinions on how the world was designed and has been maintained.John Lesley also says that ‘’if rocks had made by God stamped on them we would know it is made by God – they don’t’ therefore we can’t know for sure. In conclusion to the question of strengths and weaknesses I feel that for me, the strengths, even, though there may be fewer than weaknesses, their principles outweigh the number of weaknesses. I personally think that the design argument cannot thoroughly prove the existence of God; however it gives a clear indicator to a des igner.

Thursday, October 10, 2019

Religious Views on War Essay

1. To complete this Graded Assignment, retrieve the Religious Views on War DBQ. Use this document with its essay instructions and the DBQ Checklist to complete this DBQ essay. Please consult the rubric throughout the process. Using the documents, compare the views of major world religions on war. What additional kind of document(s) would you need to compare the views of major world religions on war? Essay: Three major world religons have their roots in India: Hinduism, Buddhism and Sikhism. Buddhism and Sikhism both grew from Hinduism. All three share the idea of non-violence (ahimsa). The term ‘non-violence’ was actually coined in English (about 1920) by Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (1869-1948) as a direct translation of ‘ahimsa’, ‘avoiding harm to others’. The idea of non-violence was very important to Mahatma Gandhi’s thinking and actions as a Hindu leader during India’s approach to independence in 1947. He wrote: ‘I object to violence because when it appears to do good, the good is only temporary; the evil it does is permanent Hinduism is perhaps the oldest world religion; in some of its writings ahimsa has been considered the highest duty from the beginning of time. Jainism also grew out of Hinduism; Jainists believe that people should strive to become detached from the distractions of worldly existence; and that the practice of ahimsa is an essential step on the way to personal salvation Buddhism developed from the teaching of Siddhartha Gautama, called the Buddha (c.563 – 483 BC), who believed that human suffering could be overcome by following a particular way of life. The first precept of Buddhism is ‘non-harming’ (ahimsa): Buddhists reject violence. Buddhism is clearly pacifist in its teaching, and many Buddhists say quite bluntly that it is ‘better to be killed than to kill’. Some Buddhists have been very active in promoting peace, particularly during the Vietnam War (1961- 1975), when they  offered a ‘Third Way’ of reconciliation between the American and Communist armies. Some Buddhist monks burned themselves to death in self-sacrificing protest against the war. In the Guru’s house, religion and worldly enjoyment should be combined – the cooking pot to feed the poor and needy and the sword to hit oppressors.

Importance Of English Language Essay

The importance of English language is spreading geographically. In the world there are many languages being spoken. English is one of them which become international language. Language is used to defining the characteristics of every nation. Every country has its own language culture. People in USA, Canada and Europe speak English. Different Stages of Languages in Subcontinent: In subcontinent history of language is takes a great amount of time. When Muslims governed in subcontinent then they brought their language. At that time Urdu became the official language and language of common people. Muslims also learned Arabic language to improve their social condition but they can’t brought prominent change in their set-up. After that, When English came in the place of Muslim. They brought their culture and language. English became the master language. Everyone tried to learned English language quickly. They change their social , economical and education system. Which people learned English they got good jobs and able to got success. Read more: Importance of English language essay Realisation of its importance: Almost Asians were felt hesitation to learn English. Leaders of Muslims convinced then to learn or write English for their progress. They helped them to make acceptable place for themselves in new system. Because of English, We are able to get success in every profession. English as medium of success: In developed countries almost everyone speaks English and they lead all over the world. Unfortunately in our society our people feel shy & they are too much confuse and nervous to speak English. People fear to bring change in educational and government level. They are unwilling to introduced English at the place of Urdu. Government should to take action to make English common. In start this step from government departments. They try to conduct their business in English not in Urdu. Urdu is our mother tongue everyone can speak Urdu easily. But we try to make English common in offices, schools,  business etc. English as a medium of information: English use ass a medium of information and instruction in schools, at higher education level, in offices. We should change our system Urdu to English. Make English compulsory from primary level, conduct exams in English. Students, who feel English difficult, they can’t get good jobs in higher education to get good jobs in high standard institutions and multinational companies. It is necessary that, We have command in English. Private English medium schools play an important role in rapid growth of English. They prepare their in good way but no one can afford the expense of English medium schools. English is a Language of Science & Technology: English is not important for educational system it is also became the language of science and technology. It is an international language as well as, it is a language of technological research. Every field based on English. Now people of our society know the importance of English, they learn English with great speed. Pakistan also develop English in scientific research. Pakistan gets idea from developed countries. English is also important of our success. Increase in Foreign Income: As we know, English is an international language. To conduct business with other countries, We must be able to deal them in English. Income from export of goods is a major part of our national income. We have known, How the basics of English language then we can easily deals with foreign traders, Which increase our foreign income. Knowledge of English keeps people of our society to get good jobs in other countries. Important of English in Strong Future: Our government should improve set-up of educational system. Makes our society social English-speaking. Advantage of this great step is, We can lead other developed countries. We also can influence in world situation. Our government try to reduce the difference between Urdu and English. Medium institutions makes English as a compulsory subject and other subject conduct in English. Urdu also is an important language, it shows the good manners  and attractive culture to others but for the country progress or stand with other countries, We should have strong grip on English. English play very important role in our political, economical and social progress. We need English for our better present and for better future. Conclusion: We should focused on English language. Because it is an international language also a living language, and it is also important for our success. We surely can’t ignore the importance of English Language. Disraeli.Disraeli saying about success.

Wednesday, October 9, 2019

Purification of Drinking Water, Drinking Water Treatment Processes, Essay

Purification of Drinking Water, Drinking Water Treatment Processes, Wastewater Treatment in Developing Countries - Essay Example Availability of clean drinking water is a major global concern with the situation in developing countries becoming worse due to the rapid population growth in these nations. Scarcity of water has serious socio-economic implications in developing countries with women and girls from poor families spending a majority of their time searching for water at the expense of economically rewarding activities and education (Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, 2010). Poor quality drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene contribute to 4 billion cases of diarrhoea disease annually with more than 1.5 million people losing their lives, the majority being children under the age of five years (United Nations, 2005). These people are usually exposed to contaminated drinking water mainly from untreated waste water that contains human and animal faeces and urine exposing them to pathogenic micro organisms. Water Sources Drinking water comes from both surface and ground water with the na tural water cycle maintaining the available water for mankind (Omran, 2011). Majority of people from developing countries get their water from springs, boreholes, sealed wells, hand-dug wells, streams, rivers, and lakes (Omran, 2011). Some of these sources are contaminated with water borne diseases responsible for over 50% hospitalization in these countries (Alward et al., 1994). Despite some of the sources like ground water being clean and safe for drinking, improper use, ignorance and lack of adequate sanitation facilities like toilets make their drinking water contaminated during collection, transport, storage and drawing of water (Lindskog and Lindskog, 1988). This contributes significantly to developing countries disease burdens. Purification of Drinking Water Majority of people living in developing countries uses simple and rudimentary water treatment techniques to serve individual households and community needs despite the availability of superior conventional technologies. C onventional treatment technologies are too expensive and inappropriate for people living in very poor neighbourhoods due to limitation in infrastructure and skilled personnel. The simple and rudimentary water purification system is primarily aimed to remove the visible impurities such as floating particles, leaves, and twigs. The commonly used water purification systems include; Simple Filtration This is accomplished by using locally available filters, sieves, or pieces of cloth. The filters can be made of sandstones and plant materials and are purposefully made to clarify or remove visible contaminants of water. Boiling Boiling is the most commonly used and promoted household water treatment method around the world (Beddow, 2010). The water being boiled must reach a boiling temperature of 1000c. This process is effective in killing most pathogens that cause water borne diseases. The disadvantages of boiling include the lack of residual antimicrobial properties in the water making t he water easily re-contaminated if handled improperly. Boiling is widely accepted across all regions and when done properly offers many people access to safe drinking water free from diarrhoea causing organisms. Waste Water Treatment Waste water treatment in developing cou

Tuesday, October 8, 2019

Strategic Management Accounting Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Strategic Management Accounting - Research Paper Example Variance analysis helps to determine variation from standards and in turn enhances productivity (Thukkaram, 2007). Any standard setting is a double edged sword, which has its plus points but is not free from certain drawbacks. The paper is an analysis of traditional and modern methods of costing and also, lays down an explanation for each one of these methods, besides recognising the importance of each one in specific industries. The prime objective of the paper is to understand the different methods of costing and analyse and establish the method of costing which is indispensable as per the kind of organizational setting and organizational needs in context. The study was aimed at analysis of various cost measures and their individual suitability to different organizational needs. The scope to fully gauge the benefits of using each one of them was unavailable. Real life case analysis was also not possible for establishment of research findings. Marginal costing can be referred to as a variation of flexible standard costing that helps to distinguish between the fixed costs and variable costs, which depend on per unit of output produced. Marginal costing is helpful in monitoring costs based on resources that drive it. These resources help in segregating costs into fixed and variable elements. Any cost fluctuations observed as a result of operational changes can be accurately predicted and checked with the use of marginal costing. Marginal costing is one method of costing for inventory where all the different variables of manufacturing costs are included as inventory costs. Such costs are incurred and become a part of the cost of goods sold when the product gets sold, while other elements of cost, which is the fixed cost, is taken to be costs for the period within which it is incurred (Kaplan Financial Knowledge Bank, n.d.). Marginal costing tries to capture the behavioural aspects of cost calculation, rather than functional traits of cost. The

Sunday, October 6, 2019

Impact of service quality on customer satisfaction and customer Dissertation

Impact of service quality on customer satisfaction and customer loyalty an application on the banking sector - Dissertation Example With the aim to evaluate the impact of service quality and customer satisfaction on customer loyalty, three objectives were set in Chapter I. Based on a qualitative approach, only secondary data has been used for this study. With customer loyalty as the dependent variable, three independent variables – perceived value, service quality and customer experience have been considered in this study. The study finds that certain dimensions of service quality directly impact customer loyalty - reliability, empathy, responsiveness and assurance. Staff training is thus of importance in delivering quality training to evoke such feelings in customers. In the service economy the relationship between service quality and customer experience has gained immense importance. Customers base their future decisions on the ‘moment of truth’ and hence staging and designing an experience has become an important tool to gain competitive advantage in the banking sector. Banks need to unders tand individual customer needs and personalize service. Perceived value enhances customer satisfaction and this leads to enhanced customer loyalty. Customers evaluate the benefits they receive against the costs they pay for such services. Thus Perceived value in the banking sector independently impacts customer satisfaction leading to customer loyalty. ... 1.4 Conceptual framework 4 1.5 Structure of the Study 6 1.6 Scope of the Study 6 Chapter II Literature Review 2.1 Chapter Overview 7 2.2 Definitions 2.2.1 Service Quality 7 2.2.2 Customer Satisfaction and Customer Experience 8 2.2.3 Customer-perceived Value 9 2.2.4 Customer Loyalty 10 2.3 Dimensions and perceptions of service quality 2.3.1 Dimensions of Service Quality 10 2.3.2 The Gap Model 11 2.3.3 Perceptions of Service Quality 12 2.3.4 Summary 15 2.4 Service Quality and Customer Loyalty 16 2.5 Service Quality and Customer Experience 19 2.6 Perceived Value on Customer Satisfaction and Customer Loyalty 22 Chapter III Methodology 3.1 Research Philosophy 23 3.2 Research Design 23 3.3 Research Methodology 23 3.4 Choice of Method 24 3.5 Data Collection 25 3.6 Sources of data 25 3.7 Justification for Literature Review 25 3.8 Data Analysis 26 3.9 Ethical Concerns 26 Chapter IV Findings and Discussion 4.1 The Banking Industry 27 4.2 Service Quality and Customer Loyalty 27 4.3 Service Qual ity and Customer Experience 29 4.4 Perceived Value on Customer Satisfaction and Customer Loyalty 31 4.5 Discussion 33 Chapter V Conclusion and Recommendation 5.1 Conclusion 36 5.2 Recommendations to enhance customer loyalty 37 5.3 Limitations of the Study 37 5.4 Recommendations for further research 37 5.5 Personal Reflections 39 References 40 Figures Figure I Framework for the Study 5 Figure II Customer Experience and Service Quality 30 Chapter I Introduction 1.1 Background In an intensely competitive business environment, sustainable competitive advantage has become imperative. The service industry has been forced to create new ways of finding competitive advantage (Chen & Hu, 2012). Retaining customers is considered to be more important than creating new customers. Retaining existing

Saturday, October 5, 2019

Consumer Behaviour Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Consumer Behaviour - Coursework Example Each society their is some type of social class that is significant to the marketers since the buying behaviour of persons in a given social class is alike. In this way, marketing actions could be designed according to diverse social classes. Now we should note that the social class is not determined by income alone but there are several other reasons as well such as: assets, education, profession etc (BABIN & HARRIS 2011). Social factors also affect the consumer behaviour of customers. The significant social factors are situation groups, family, the role and the status. The members of a family adversely influence buyer behaviour. Consequently, marketers are working hard to find the roles and power of the husband, the wife and the children. If wife influences the buying decision of a particular product then the marketers will attempt to target women in their advertisement. Now we should note that purchasing roles change with vary in the consumer lifestyles (BEST HAWKINS & MOTHERSBAUG H 2007). Every person possesses unique roles and status in a society relying upon groups, family, clubs, and organization to which the person belongs. For instance, a woman is working in a certain organization as the finance manager. Here she is playing double roles, one as the finance manager and other role as a mother. Consequently, her purchasing decisions will be influenced by the role and the status (DEBRUICKER QUELCH & WARD 1986). (2) Personal Factors Personal factors also shape the consumer behaviour. The important personal aspects that influence the purchasing behaviour are the lifestyle of a person, economic condition, profession, age, character and self-concept. Age and the life cycle have noticeable impact on... The paper shows that when you are aware of how consumers behave in relation to the goods, you are selling, and then you have a good understanding of how to give good service to them, raising the probability that you will have repeat consumers. For instance, if you know that consumers tend to come to your hotel since they can get good food devoid of waiting for a very long time, you should carry on training your wait employees to be as resourceful as possible. Gather some customer behaviour data by just analyzing the sales data you already have. For instance, you can see whether the majority of your goods are brought with cash or credit card. If you happen to have a clock on the register, you know then when individuals tend to buy in your store. Nevertheless, you should not restrict yourself to that information. The most important information is from the depth answers from your customers about their expenditure. Focus groups, the surveys and the one-on-one interviews are better ways to get the information about customer behaviour. Encourage the consumers to contribute in these projects by offering rewards, like a contest entry or a discount, for the survey completion or the focus group contribution. This paper approves that consumer behaviour assists organizations decide what goods and services to produce or offer. Once they evaluate on what customers purchase and how they come up with they different ways of identifying what products to purchase and what to be left out, companies can more simply spot a necessitate that lacks in they product and supplement it with something either of the same quality or of a supplementary function.

Friday, October 4, 2019

BUSINESS LAW Speech or Presentation Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

BUSINESS LAW - Speech or Presentation Example Unlike members of ordinary partnerships, the LLP itself is responsible for any debts that it runs up, not the individual partners. 3 The Limited Liability Partnership (LLP) is viewed as an alternative corporate business vehicle that provides the benefits of limited liability but allows its members the flexibility of organizing their internal structure as a partnership based on a mutually arrived agreement. The LLP form would enable entrepreneurs, professionals and enterprises providing services of any kind or engaged in scientific and technical disciplines, to form commercially efficient vehicles suited to their requirements. Owing to flexibility in its structure and operation, the LLP would also be a suitable vehicle for small enterprises and for investment by venture capital. 4 Members in case of negligence or fraud are personally liable only if he assumes personal responsibility for the acts done.

Thursday, October 3, 2019

The Crucible by Arthur Miller Essay Example for Free

The Crucible by Arthur Miller Essay When a conflict arises, many people stand back and watch as their beliefs are trampled on, but sometimes one person will stand up and die for what they believe and inspire all those with similar beliefs. Of the many people who died in the Salem witch trials, one man stands out as a true martyr who died in the pursuit of justice and whose actions served as a model for all the people in Salem. In The Crucible, Arthur Miller portrayed the character of Giles Corey as a martyr through his strong convictions, honesty, concern for justice, and his willingness to die for these causes. Giles Corey, a man of strong beliefs, refused to give the authorities the lie they demanded, therefore, he died a martyr. Unlike many of the people of Salem, Giles Corey held fast to his strong convictions. When he believed something was wrong, he refused to sit and passively accept the injustice, but instead notified the authorities and demanded a fair trial. When his wife was being wrongly accused of witchcraft, Giles stood up for her, yelling in court Youre hearing lies, lies! (84). Giles is clearly concerned with the truth and frequently pleads with the court to reject the girls statements and understand that they [were] telling lies about [his] wife (85). Again, he pursues justice when he urges the court to hear Mary Warren confess that she and the other girls had lied. He introduces her by stating she comes now to tell the truth (88). Giles Corey demonstrates his strong beliefs through his preoccupation with truth and justice in the witch trials. Not only was Giles Corey adamant about justice and other peoples truthfulness in the court, but also he showed that he was an honest man and therefore refused to give an untruthful confession. When Proctor was accused of plowing on Sunday, Giles reminded the court that there were other Christians that do plow on Sunday if the truth be known (91). Giles again offered honest information to the judges, explaining that he had been thirty-three time in court (95). Even if that information made him look bad during his trial, he always felt compelled to tell the truth. Because he had told the truth before and his wife had suffered because of it, Giles refused to speak in court explaining I mentioned my wifes name once and Ill burn in hell long enough for that. I stand mute (97). Giles never  lied, but when he realized that the truth could hurt other people, he simply refused to give any information to the authorities. Following his strong convictions and refusing to lie, Giles Corey died a martyr, suffering a slow put painful death not for personal reasons but for justice in his community. The only words Giles Corey spoke when they placed the stones on his body and demanded a confession were More weight, symbolizing his refusal to lie and his intentions to die in the name of truth (135). Goody Proctor noted that he had remained mute and died Christian under the law making him an example in the community and keeping his name clear from guilt so that his children could keep his farm and continue their lives (135). After hearing the news of Giles strong character and martyrdom, John Proctor declared that he had to confess because he could not mount the gibbet like a saint the way Giles had done (136). Proctor revered Giles for his noble deed and was eventually inspired to give up his own life for the people he loved. Sometimes it is necessary to die so that beliefs and morals may live on. As a man of strong principles who refused to give in to the authoritys demands to sacrifice truth for a quick solution, Giles Corey died a martyr. He held strong to his belief in the importance of truth and chose to give no statements over one that could potentially condemn a friend, family member, or himself. He was a model for the people of Salem in that he accepted his punishment so that they could rid themselves of the plagues of a town wide witch hunt. When justice is in danger of dying, a human death often seems the only way to save such a cause.

Impact Of Crm On Customer Satisfaction And Retention Management Essay

Impact Of Crm On Customer Satisfaction And Retention Management Essay 1. Introduction Customer relationship management (CRM) is a set of strategic practices and is a broadly used term that covers different functions and concepts of organisations in aspects of operational, collaborative and analytical frameworks (Ramsey, 2010). There are many benefits the company could derive upon implementation of CRM systems. These benefits are: customers-suppliers linkage, access, hassle-free communication, and reduction of implementation cycles, centralised and regularised systems upgrade, centralisation of maintenance and enhancement expertise and homogenisation of CRM technology (Kelly and Gillbert, 2003) (Harrington, 2008) (Taylor, 2004) (Hunter, 2009). Customer Relationship Management is a fresh and prominent business approach that has integrated permanently in the contemporary business management literature (Chen, 2003). It usually refers to business activities directed towards initiating, establishing, maintaining, and developing successful long-term relational exchanges (Sharma and Mittal, 2007). CRM not only impacts business performance but has an effect upon customers. It results in clients retention, satisfaction and loyalty (Smith, 2006). The benefits of customer retention and satisfaction are many, therefore companies eagerly tries to secure a significant customer base (Kumra, 2005). Information technology plays an important part in facilitating the link between CRM and customer retention. Company can utilize the combination of computers speed and storage capabilities along with the internet connectivity. This helps in providing a powerful linkage among several functions of the company (Ramsey, 2010). For companies of different sizes, different CRM systems are available which range from the simplest contact-management systems that focus on assisting individual salespeople to most complex enterprise-wide and cross-enterprise systems (Newby and Sherif, 2005). The basic function of the CRM systems is to connect the company with its customers and suppliers. CRM systems ensure that customers have a consistent experience across multiple sales channels (Han and Kim, 2003). It is vital for a company to successfully implement CRM system as an effective implementation assists the company in meeting the customer needs. It is the responsibility of the management to integrate the system in the company and train its staff to effectively work on the CRM systems (Zarali, 2009). It is aimed to explore these issues and the researcher will attempt to identify the impact of CRM systems on the overall marketing system of the company. 2. Research Question Determine how CRM systems can impact the customer loyalty and retention, and its effect on skills of employees and customers satisfaction? 3. Aim and Objectives The main aim of this dissertation is to study the value and importance of CRM systems in terms of customer satisfaction and retention. To achieve this aim following objectives are to be achieved: * To analyse the published literature on CRM and to identify related issues. * To assess the impact of CRM systems on customer satisfaction and retention. * To summarize all the literature and the findings and present them in customer satisfaction context. * To provide recommendations to the company. 4. Companys Profile The company selected for this dissertation is MobileNet, Ltd which is situated in the heart of Delhi, the capital of India. The company deals with providing mobile phone and network connections to individual customers as well as corporate clients. Along with the mobile products, it provides direct and indirect services related to handsets and network system. It started as a small company with few employees but gradually developed into a successful medium size enterprise. Reasons for the choice of selecting this company includes: Availability of appropriate data, personal contacts with the company management and previous job experience with the company. The other motives are ease to conduct research, less finance needed and time effectiveness. The company has recently adapted and implemented CRM systems within the company. This has improved its overall business transactions, activities and performance as well as increased profits. 5. Research Significance and Problem Identification Although CRM is an established concept in contemporary management studies, little has been focused upon impact of CRM systems on customer satisfaction. There are literally no studies available on it regarding Indian environment. Constantly changing environment and performance oriented industry are influencing the organizational structure and leading to increased reliance on staff and customer loyalty. CRM is basically a new concept in India. It needs time to improve and integrate other aspects into it. But this problem can be addressed by relating effectiveness of CRM systems on organizations marketing activities. This issue is now established as it affects the field of management in several ways. It is especially valuable for companies seeking better performance. 6. Hypothesis The company can satisfy its customers, attract new ones and retain existing ones by successfully and effectively implementing latest CRM system within the company. If appropriate system is implemented, it can prove beneficial and help the company to achieve its marketing objectives. 7. Rationale Companies tend to apply out-dated and inadequate systems that most of times doesnt work on their business situations. While doing so, they often ignore to adapt advanced CRM systems. In order to improve the customer satisfaction, companies need to adapt new ways that can impact overall customer loyalty as well as help to successfully retain existing customers. There are many other specific topics that can be explored regarding the application of CRM systems. There is need to increase the limited knowledge regarding the implications and effects of CRM systems. This study proposes to focus on marketing activities of the chosen company. The research rationale is to determine the benefits of CRM systems implementation in marketing.    8. Theoretical Framework The main aim of the dissertation is to investigate the impact of CRM systems and its implementation on customer satisfaction. In this research, the researcher will try to reveal the general customer behaviours in existence. This will also include the exploration on patterns of customer satisfaction, retention and loyalty. Prior to this, the researcher will try to present information on the recent CRM systems in use in marketing and to discover its importance. In addition, the paper will also seek to discuss the benefits and limitations of CRM systems in marketing and how it could possibly improve the overall performance and position of the company. Moreover, the research will also aspire to investigate customer information management which includes responses and relationships. The role of management in implementing and managing CRM system will also be critically analysed in this dissertation. Finally, the paper will aim to compare actual practices on organisations with benchmark prac tices. This research will specifically examine impact of CRM systems focusing on marketing issues by taking into account environmental and cultural requirements of the company. The researcher will compare the literature with case study of the company and conclude on the benefits of adapting CRM systems   9. Usefulness of the Research This research will consider all the relevant factors related to marketing theory of CRM. It can be useful for the company for comparison reasons with its own survey. It can be a guideline for the company to take improvement measures. Further it can be used by students for reference purposes. This research when completed can provide better understanding of the risks associated with implementation of CRM systems. From a broader sense, this paper can essentially contribute to corporate decision making. It may contribute to help students improve their learning skill regarding CRM systems and how it applies to customer satisfaction. This research can be an important management or information technology endeavour in the academia.    10. Knowledge Gaps and a Future Research Agenda Research questions which are needed to be addressed include: How important is the implementation of CRM systems in marketing activities of the organisations? What are the benefits and limitations of CRM systems in marketing? How does the implementation of CRM systems in marketing affect the general performance of the organisations? Is the implementation of CRM systems in marketing improved the current position of the organisations? What are the strategic planning activities does the CRM systems provide the organisations? How do CRM systems contribute to customer satisfaction and retention? In what ways do CRM systems contribute to customers loyalty? Does the implementation of CRM systems affect the supplier-buyer relationship? In what ways? 11. Research Methodology According to Kothari (2008), research is a systematic study for the collection of data and information to solve the problem or achieve an objective. Saunders et al. (2010) describe it as a rigorous activity that involves organized development and acquisition of knowledge. Kumar (2005) defines methodology as a focused investigation beyond generally available knowledge in order to obtain specific and detailed information which later provides analysis basis on the topic of enquiry. For this dissertation, the researcher will examine all the available research techniques. Only the appropriate research methods will be selected and the reasons for the made choices with justification will also be provided. Gantt chart will be applied to plan and coordinate dissertation tasks. It will also assist in presenting the research graphically (Bryman and Bell, 2007). Data would be carefully collected and would remain within the research scope (Saunders et al. 2010). The researcher will make sure that all the data gathered is reliable and valid. Both secondary and primary information collection methods will form the data collection structure for this dissertation. Both of these methods will include Qualitative and Quantitative data (Saunders et al. 2010). The researcher has decided to apply cost effective methods to obtain maximum information from the target population. Companys internal information will be researched along with external sources. External research sources inc lude catalogues, magazines, newspapers, technical publications and journals. In addition latest articles from renowned journals and contemporary marketing and management books will be consulted and reviewed to give a broader view (Kumar, 2005). According to Bryman and Bell (2007) interviews are one of the best ways for collecting relevant information from participants experiences. It is the most effective way to collect primary data. As planned, interviews will be conducted from the managers and employees to review their opinions. Questionnaires will also be used that will be distributed to randomly selected customers. Questionnaires can be effective for the collection of data that can be later quantified using appropriate scales (Kothari, 2008). The researcher can easily circulate the questionnaire. It is also the cheapest method of communication with fastest response rate. Questionnaire can target huge base of customers. It also minimises the risk of losing the answers (Saunders et al. 2007). Multi-method/mixed-method technique (triangulation) will be applied. This technique focuses on combining quantitative and qualitative data to achieve the goals. All the collected information will be analysed on Microsoft Word 2010 Br yman and Bell, 2007). Both managers of the company will be interviewed; randomly selected few employees for interviews and randomly selected customers will be selected. The reason for selecting managers is quite forward as they can provide enough information on companys management of CRM system and related issues. Employees are selected to discuss their views on impact of CRM on their performance and satisfaction. It will be difficult to question every customer so the researcher will try to distribute questionnaire to as many people as possible so that the enough data can be collected to represent the whole population. 12. Limitation Limitation would arise as the research will progress. It may include management and employee or even customer bias, unavailability of essential data, ineffective time and resource allocation, etc. It is a natural limitation that information cannot be gathered from all the sources; therefore sampling will be done randomly. Not all sources can be searched; therefore Bells six point parameter will be applied to minimize sources and avoid collecting irrelevant data. 13. Time Scale Chart Task Date (Start) Date (Finish) Time Estimated Research Proposal Research Findings Literature Review Research Methodology Findings and Analysis Drafting and Submission 14. Summary of the Research Chapter 1 is introduction. The researchs overview will be laid out in this section. Aim and Objectives will be included along with the hypothesis and rationale. Research significance and usefulness will be explained as well as theoretical framework. In the end of this section knowledge gaps and research agenda will also be emphasized, before finally providing the research layout. Chapter 2 of dissertation is literature review which comprises almost half of the dissertation. Latest issues related to CRM will be discussed and critically analysed. This section will be divided into sub-topics of important subjects. The impact of CRM system, its adaption and implementation, its importance for customer satisfaction and retention, the role of management and employees and other important issues will be critically analysed. Several authors views will be considered and will be linked to CRM. Debate on important CRM issues and arguments presented by different scholars will also be provided. Chapter 3 reviews the methodology of the research. Selected research methods and techniques will be explained as well as research approaches will be clearly defined. All this will be clarified with justification. The researcher will clearly describe the benefits of using chosen methods to validate the research. It will be ensured to examine the research process in detail as well as to assess the limitations and constraints faced. Information about sampling method and data analysis tools will also be provided. By conducting research, the researcher will try to examine the importance of CRM system for customer satisfaction. Chapter 4 is the analysis of the gathered data which will partially be graphical presented. Findings of the research and analysis of the data collected will be combined for this section of the dissertation. The researcher will critically analyse results from interviews and questionnaires. Chapter 5 summarises all the literature and data to research conclusion. Recommendations will be proposed to the company in this section.