Monday, September 30, 2019

Cottle-Taylor Analysis

Question 1: Cottle-Taylor A company’s marketing mix strategy is key to their success. Thorough analysis is needed to assure that product attributes, distribution strategy, communication strategy and pricing strategy are all in line with the company’s strategic goal. The following analysis is of Cottle-Taylor’s marketing mix strategy in India. Product Attributes: Cottle-Taylor has three product categories in order to reach their three market segments: 1) Low-End Manual, 2) Mid-Range Manual, and 3) Battery-Operated. The manual toothbrush designs include â€Å"a variety of colors; all styles included rubber grips† (HBR 6).In the Low-End category Cottle-Taylor produced 5 different products with varying characteristics ranging from soft bristles, to flexible necks for minimal gum irritation, to kid sized brushes. This category contains a basic toothbrush with no significant innovation. The Mid-Range category has two products that have slightly more advanced fea tures such as multi-angled bristles and tongue cleaner. The Battery-Operated is the most advanced category in terms of innovation and product characteristics. It contains two electric toothbrush models with rotating bristles that perform 3,000 strokes a minute.Distribution Strategy: Cottle-Taylor has three distribution tactics in order to penetrate the large dispersed retail scene in India: 1) 20 distributors that focus on the large retail outlets in urban cities, 2) 250 medium sized distributors serving wholesalers and retailers in semi urban areas, and 3) â€Å"seed† distributors who work with over 300,000 outlets in small villages across the country (HBR 7). In the retail outlets in urban cities Cottle-Taylor mainly supplies their Mid-Range and Battery-Operated models to capitalize on higher-income Indians who shop at supermarkets.Cottle-Taylor uses â€Å"seed† distributors to supply the numerous small villages with its basic line. They see no value in building rela tionships because there are too many small stores and â€Å"seed† distributors speak the language. However, communicating key selling points was hard and assuring their products were visible in the small cluttered stores was impossible. Communication Strategy: Cottle-Taylor had three key communication messages in India: 1) Persuading consumers to brush for the first time, 2) Increasing incidences of brushing, and 3) Persuading consumers to upgrade to Mid-Range or PremiumProducts (HBR 8). They allocated 12% of sales on the advertising budget, which broke down into 9% for advertisements and 3% for promotions. The main target demographics are men and women ages 20-35 in rural and urban areas that currently brush or don’t brush. It is important to build awareness and educate consumers on the benefits of tooth brushing and they did this through the use of TV, radio, billboards and prints ads. Pricing Strategy: Cottle-Taylor prices their toothbrushes in respect to their targ et segments.The low-end brushes range from . 22-. 35 cents, the medium-end ranges from . 52-. 98 cents and the high-end ranges from $1-11. In terms of driving success in India, Cottle-Taylor’s strategy is strongest in the area of communication. They successfully positioned and communicated to customers that they are â€Å"an authority on oral care† (HBR 5) and consumers hold their products in high regard. Partnering with IDA has given their brand great credibility and helped them become an industry leader holding 47% of the oral care market share.As shown in Exhibit 5, Cottle-Taylor has experienced 53% growth in market share for toothbrushes from 2004-2009 and 47% growth in oral care market share. They ran successful campaigns where, â€Å"among rural residents†¦those exposed to the campaigns were twice as likely to adopt tooth brushing within a year than those who had not been exposed† (HBR 5). In just five years they have almost dominated the oral care ma rket and a key contributor to their success is their communication strategy.Their weakest strategy in the marketing mix is product attributes. It appears Cottle-Taylor has not fully understood their market segments when designing products for India. Looking at exhibit 8, it is clear the majority of demand is for the Low-End Manual with 87% of sales. The least amount of demand is for the Battery-Operated brush with only . 5% of sales. With 80% of the population in India living under $2 a day, does it make sense to market a high-end expensive product in India?Exhibit 4 shows that a very small percentage of Indians have sufficient amounts of disposable income to spend on expensive toothbrushes. India has a very small concentration of high income and a very large number of people living in poverty. The Battery-Operated brush is mainly marketed in urban areas however, â€Å"in 2009 roughly 78% of Indians lived in rural towns and villages and 22% in urban settings† (HBR 3). This is a very small percent of the population they are trying to capture with the high-end toothbrush. Overall, this is a very comprehensive marketing strategy.Cottle-Taylor has segmented the market and created specific products for each market. As mentioned earlier, the high-end segment does not have significant demand, which insinuates the segments could have been analyzed more. With this said, Cottle-Taylor has done a good job at navigating the complex retail scene in India through their distribution strategy. It is clear that Cottle-Taylor has successfully marketed their brand through communications mediums because there is high brand awareness and favorable brand positioning.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

It Is Often Easier to Figth for Principles Than to Liv Up to Them

Adlai Stevenson once commented, â€Å"It is often easier to fight for principles than to live up to them. † Based o your reading, observation, or experience, to what extent to you agree or disagree with Stevenson’s words? Please give examples that support your point of view. One man said, â€Å"I don’t agree with what you say, but I defend with my life your right to say it†, thus, expressing the importance of the right of free speech. Many principles, for example justice, democracy and equality, which nowadays are taken for granted in the developed world, are the outcome of a long struggle through the ages. However, it is often said that people are more eager to fight for what they believe is right and just, than to live by the rules they have fought for. In my opinion, this is a solid argument which can be proven by several examples. Throughout human history there have been many examples of rebellions, which begun urged by idealism but afterwards lost their way. The most recent are the ones who took place for the sake of communism. To be more precise, communist rebels declared equal rights and a society without social classes, principles that were left aside as soon as the revolution was over and the government was a communist one. Communist leaders then, justified extreme measures as the only way to establish and maintain their ideals against capitalistic foes, depriving human rights, which were the main incentive of the rebellion. Another clue is how most people differentiate their principles and priorities as they grow older. It is mostly youngsters, especially the literate ones, who demonstrate a rebellious spirit against any violation of their principles. However, as years go by and student life is replaced by career and family obligations, these principles begin to fade away. Life is full of dilemmas and only the strong ones put aside personal interest for the sake of principles and beliefs. When someone is fighting for an ideal, he is comforted by the thought that, despite the danger, he is doing the right thing. He is doing something for the common good and that makes him feel a part of a larger group of common believers. One the other hand, when the goal is achieved and his ethical defenses are down, it is difficult and inconvenient to live by lofty principles. Priorities change and principles are considered a luxury for those with no responsibilities.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Belief And Faith In Organisations Cultural Studies Essay

Belief And Faith In Organisations Cultural Studies Essay Religion and think of an organization is tradition. It's a term which is not unusual and is understood to nearly every person on earth. It outlined and could be equally discussed freely or it may be simply comprehended mutually, in other words, without stating anything-but could be represented in the only functions of even a company, team or a person. It's something not absent in all facets of our own lives. To put it differently, it's the real reason for an individual's behavior. But tradition may emerge in a variety of circumstances including cultural tradition and culture. It's worthy and a development of praise. You will find five measurements of the tradition: Masculity, Uncertainty prevention, Personal Group and Power Space Ferminity. Culture may be understood to be the organized manner to do things within an company where principles and beliefs which can be created inside the company is discussed. Therefore, the tradition direct the behavior of the people in the business. Additionally it is referred to as business lifestyle and is an integral facet of any workplace or business environment. Several occasionally we notice people make claims like: "Here Is just how is done points here". They may be the truth is that revealing or speaking in regards to the tradition. For varieties of Business civilizations are Bureaucratic, Flexible and Corperative. Records from Pitch Hand-Outs Some Notes from Company Conduite. Cultural lifestyle is how individuals act according from what they've realized out of society or their family. This can be usually according to the competition anyone lives in or the state that she or he is from. It includes emphasizing ways that are specific that the items are complete and do-ing specific things. Distinct civilizations 've gotten distinct understandings of issues that were seeing. Something which could possibly be dismissed or as standard in one single tradition that was cultural might be considered to not be as low overlook in another. For instance,for instance, the notion of relationship in the tradition that is Oriental as well as the American tradition and each additional differ. It's an average matter to get a few to call home together without marriage in the lifestyle that is American. Yet, in the Oriental lifestyle (primarily Indian) it's really an excellent failure to do such factor plus in addition, it exhibits contempt for the ideals organized in their opi nion. Discovering the huge difference between both of these civilizations is this in Organisational tradition CHANGE usually takes spot frequently and readily. Say in case a kiwi supervisor of the business modifications, it is not unlikely the way points are complete because business may furthermore alter in accordance with the supervisor that is newest. Organisational lifestyle is generated from whoever owns the organisation/firm it self as well as the individuals who work with him. Organisational lifestyle period is dependent upon the operating as well as the equilibrium of their direction and such specific company. Organisational tradition h-AS boundation that is regular /connection by means of the people dealing together. Although the change in the tradition that is Racial just isn't a typical stuff that will occur often. Actually when there is an alteration, it could consider under consideration in to quite a few additional matters prior to the real selection is manufactured. Number of individuals creates racial culture /society discussing thoughts and sam-e opinions from previous period of time. Tradition period that is cultural typically are from wonderful earlier of forefathers. Ethnic lifestyle have really near heartedly connection by means of the people of this society. Racial tradition functions from spiritual and the tradition about the notion. Cultural lifestyle h AS less versatility because it's just adjustable lifestyle that is low and static. Cultural lifestyle h-AS host of diversity and selection when it comes to food, considering, clothing. Cultural traditions assistance is restricted for the individuals who make an effort to alter themselves in accordance with the scenario. Schein, E.H. (1985-2005) Business Tradition and Management, 3rd Ed., Josseybass ISBN 0-787-9-7597-4 Pitch hand-outs by Mona Some Notes from Company Conduite. (2) Direction Lifestyle - Describe how social understandings might affect behavior as well as the direction design of business or the person The direction instance that I've selected for the 2 concerns that are following, is the fact that of my Supervisor. He lately transferred to Nz and stems in the Sydney. COMPONENT A It's an extremely frequent consideration to listen to some one state: "No person is exactly the same". Lots of that time period this term can be used to generate folks realise that every person h AS diverse skills which it would unwise to examine yourself by means of another person only to be deterred by particular things one particular can-not execute while another may. Therefore, also an individual's understanding and each additional differ. Understanding means the method whereby individuals arrange, obtain and inter-Pret details in the surroundings. Numerous variables bring about individuals having intelligent that is various. As an example from, the household ideals which they obtained, the culture or the surroundings they was raised in etc. Since tradition is related to the conduct of somebody, it's quite probably that there's a large sway of the way in which issues are viewed by a person and execute things which could change from your additional man. It-no question performs an important part in the specialist area because lifestyle is apparent in all facets of our lifestyles. His ethnic heritage is greatly depicted by the authority fashion of my Mgr.. He comes from Sydney as cited before, as well as the tradition there's not rather same from my own, personal lifestyle. It's quite obvious in my experience that his authority design displays extremely on such a after having an exchange with him about his breeding and tradition. As a person, he aims to carry through his purpose as a supervisor and takes his career critically. Yet, he doesn't offer large respect to his standing on a regular basis. Usually, he and his workers joke, whether it is about a few other subjects or perform. He considers that employed within an company is in the manner of a household According to his tradition, offering because of the demands of his family is hardly unimportant which simply will not me-an purchasing them the necessary however in once getting quality moment away to invest together. So when work hrs are finished he requests every one depart the leftover employment for 24 hours later and to abandon the premises. It may be figured, his ethnic understanding is reflected by his management job. ( Address hand-outs by Mona ) Some Records and Information from Company Conduite. COMPONENT B Me definitely does impress, particularly just how he applies to the fact along with his employees that he's quite friendly. On the other hand, being from a culture that is totally diverse, my strategy could not be rather same. While I 'd enjoy to get the easiness between my employees and me, I might at once anticipate they understand and value the place whom I got in the business. This greatly demonstrates from my ethnic heritage from my facet of the household, where we occur after every person and the predominantly organization values and values their regulators that are higher. On the other hand, that doesn't me-an that acknowledgement is required on a regular basis by this strategy but frequently on when more than a few of these have a tendency to overlook their independence being easygoing by means of the personnel causes some trouble later. Like the majority of the civilizations, for the households needs offering is crucial within my lifestyle. In a somewhat dissimilar circumstance from the lifestyle of my supervisor, our perception is not and to get the perform done when possible to depart the benefit to-morrow of today's. So, work that was hard is established during his or her mindset towards his work, earning a method for promotional material or their evaluation. Obligation is some thing of esteem that is large and is valued at facets and all amounts of the area that is operating. As an Indian, I realized that Foreign tend to be mo-Re sensitive and painful plus they welcome the strategy which comes directly to them-which signifies they connect you in the standing of equivalence in the place of standing of ethnic brilliance While having a dialogue that was friendly with the personnel is beneficial to develop their regard and admiration, it's urged to not allow it to be a custom wherein one forgets to cover regard to those they've been afflicted by. For instance,for instance, frequently and fully being a supervisor concerning your-self in gags during work-hours would unethical. The motives behind this are warranted from my understanding. There could make sure individuals who could easily get offended at this reality plus reason which they don't fit in the company and they might begin to distance themselves from the others. So, my strategy and that of my supervisor as a result of our distinct ethnic understandings might surely vary. As I will be an indian ( Address hand-outs by Mona ) Some Records and Information from Company Conduite. COMPONENT III - Multi-Cultural company Every organisation consists of individuals. Individuals, that are people that are exceptional, also have various understandings for things that are different and come from other ethnic backdrops. An expression which is popular in describing companies is "multi-cultural organisation". The phrase variety is frequently connected to the expression. Variety is a phrase utilized to refer to the big difference among individuals on the job , which might be according to expertise, age, sex, the competition etc. Business that is Multi-cultural identifies the existence of distinct ethnicities in a business. A number of the features of a multicultural company are: Pluralism- People of civilizations, whether bulk or fraction get the capacity to affect the environment of procedures and essential beliefs. Architectural integration- associates from your fraction-tradition are reasonably re-presented in most occupations in any way amounts as well as in most practical duties. Casual community integration- fraction-lifestyle members get help in the profession improvement in types of support and coaching groups. Lack of splendour and bias - the demand to remove the lifestyle- through the use of various coaching and taskforce actions team prejudices. Minimal intergroup discord- variety will not encourage harmful clashes between members of fraction and bulk ethnicities. You'll find lots of advantages as well as drawbacks of being a true innovator in a cultural business that is multi. Edges Embracing lifestyle, practices and custom - It can help someone to manage the struggles between residence lifestyle/conventions and lifestyle that is fresh /conventions. In case that one discovers fresh vocabulary it really is a masterkey for the tradition that is second. C-Reative problemsolving - It can help anyone to generate alternative to your difficulty. In case that issue is being solved by one for whom the position enhances the option should both have worth, certainly resolve the mentioned difficulty or valued by some body. Minuses Battle increases - Really Being A innovator and battle can be created by functioning with individuals from varied places. Scenario appears are prepared with sights and several thoughts or were the other folks will not be ready to acknowledge the orders and attempts. Social issue - Social difficulties have been all seen by us in the course of our existence associations that are extended may not be easy to handle. Our self-esteem trust and is influenced this way, it are able to make li Fe that is handling change hard and give rise to conversation abilities that are previously lousy. Direction managing problems - Really Being A head its among the job that is difficult since you've got therefore a lot of people functioning from characteristics, behaviours, distinct ethnicities and age alongside you. S O at the same period one seems to function until it is often worst or the recommendations are prepared by him which the others must follow along with should they must live for the reason that firm. Thing that is certain like preparation and prediction, evaluation of aggressive and hazards, doubt tendering must be handled. Pitch giveaways by Mona Some Notes from Company Conduite.

Friday, September 27, 2019

Financial reporting problem Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Financial reporting problem - Assignment Example If the individual components of Total Current Liabilities are taken into account, it can be noticed that short term borrowing has been reduced to nil in 2011 which $26 last year. Accounts payable have increased by $597 in the current year. There was no current portion of long-term debt last year however this year the amount in respect of this account has jumped to $900. Considerable amount of increase can also be observed in respect of other current liabilities which include Accrued Salaries and Benefits by $187, Accrued sales and other taxes by $13, other current liabilities by $212 and, Deferred membership fees by $869. On a concluding note, it can be analyzed that the increase in the Total Current Liabilities by around 20% is a heavy increase. The company is advised to ensure that the current liabilities should be kept under the range of 10%, otherwise the company may be pushed into sever working capital

Thursday, September 26, 2019

To Build a Fire by Jack London analyze Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

To Build a Fire by Jack London analyze - Essay Example Various literary devices such as repetition, flashback and irony help reveal the idea that the man in the story is foolish and that his foolishness leads to his death. Repetition is one of the most obvious literary devices employed by London in order to somehow instill in the reader that the man in the story persists in being stubborn about not heeding the repetitive instructions that nature gives him. One of the most recurring statements in the story is â€Å"It certainly was cold† (London). This particular line appears several times throughout the story, is repeatedly rephrased in many parts, and is portrayed in such vivid imageries of cold. One line that particularly refers to this recurring coldness is â€Å"Once in a while the thought reiterated itself that it was very cold† (London). This particular repetition actually serves as a constant reminder for the man in the story to stop or turn back lest it should be too late to avoid death. Nevertheless, the man goes o n and even thinks that the idea of the cold is funny and that trying to survive it is ridiculous: â€Å"What were frosted cheeks? A bit painful, that was all; they were never serious.† (London) Another instance of repetition that demonstrates the man’s folly is â€Å"Fifty degrees below zero was to him just precisely fifty degrees below zero† (London). This particular line shows how literal the man can get when it comes to interpreting the cold temperature. He knows that it is in fact cold but despite the repeating thoughts of coldness, he remains â€Å"without imagination† (London) and he cannot see through the â€Å"significances† of things. (London) Another particular instance of repetition that abounds in the story is found in the following line where the words â€Å"below† and â€Å"zero† are repeated several times somehow for the purpose of reminding this stubborn man that he must either turn back or die: â€Å"In reality, it w as not merely colder than fifty below zero; it was colder than sixty below, than seventy below. It was seventy-five below zero. Since the freezing-point is thirty-two above zero, it meant that one hundred and seven degrees of frost obtained.† (London) Still, the following line with the word â€Å"cold† repeated four times is one more instance where the author finally hints that the man’s foolishness perhaps run in the blood because somehow he has repeatedly ignored nature’s warnings: â€Å"This man did not know cold. Possibly all the generations of his ancestry had been ignorant of cold, of real cold, of cold one hundred and seven degrees below freezing-point.† (London) Moreover, it is also possible that the repetition in the story has the purpose of achieving a sort of â€Å"hypnotic impact† and to â€Å"produce a mood that is at once somber and sinister† (Labor & Hendricks). The idea of coldness repeated several times in the aforemen tioned lines somehow help create this â€Å"somber and sinister† mood, and may even foreshadow the cold death that the man is to experience toward the end of the story. There is also a hint of irony embedded in this repetition. The repetitive mention of the word â€Å"cold† and the other elements of cold somehow â€Å"reinforce the irony of the man’s failure to recognize [the cold’s] ‘extended’ reality† (Pizer). In short, the irony is that regardless of the fact that the

Political Science Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 7

Political Science - Essay Example They are applied equally to all humans without discrimination and hence they are universal in nature and represent a common standard of achievement for all people and nations. When we talk of someone ‘having a right’ or ‘it is their right’, reference is made to human rights. Rights therefore entail entitlement to something and an obligation for someone else to provide it. Governments are obligated with the duty of promoting and protecting human rights and fundamental freedoms. If the right is endangered or denied, a person can make special claim on moral, political and social ground. Rights are thus a field of rule governed interactions centered on and under control of right holder (Donnelly, 8). Right holders are therefore not passive beneficiaries of their rights but are actively in control of them. Some rights apply to particular groups of people in order to achieve full humanity such the rights of women, children, disabled and the marginalized but should not contradict with other human rights. Human rights are based on an agreed convention such as universal declaration of human rights which governs claims of human rights and has been ratified by nations to guide their laws and international law. Human rights have become an important feature of contemporary international politics in recent years. Before the Second World War, human rights were a domestic affair. Each nation exercised these rights as it deemed necessary and states were sovereign. No states or international community was allowed to interfere with internal affairs of another nation. During the war, many atrocities were committed against people which made the protection of human rights an international priority (Viotti & Kauppi, 286). Women, children, Jews and homosexuals were murdered by Nazi government. The international community intervened and those responsible were charged for crimes against humanity. Human rights issues were discussed at UN meetings and

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Economics Issues Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Economics Issues - Coursework Example Consumers play a key role in perpetuating discrimination in the labor market through their choices and consumption patterns. If consumers prefer one commodity over another, they will lower demand in that labor market in which they do not prefer their goods.  Consumers play a key role in perpetuating discrimination in the labor market through their choices and consumption patterns. If consumers prefer one commodity over another, they will lower demand in that labor market in which they do not prefer their goods.  The law of diminishing marginal utility states that as consumption of a given commodity is increased by an individual while keeping the consumption of other products constant, there will be a decline in the marginal utility of the individual that is derived from the consumption of each and every additional unit of the product. The law of diminishing marginal utility does not contract the notion that individuals always want more of all goods because they are limited by the ir budget constraint hence they cannot acquire all that they want at any given instance.  Properties of indifference curves(a) NonintersectionIndifference curves cannot intersect each other because, at the point of tangency, the curve on the higher side will yield much more of the two commodities as compared to the lower curve hence they can never intersect.  (b) Convexity to the origin(c) The higher the indifference curve, the higher the level of satisfaction. The consumers will prefer to choose higher indifference curves since they aim at maximizing their utility.  (d) Negatively sloping. The indifference curves are negatively sloping because the consumer must give up the consumption of one commodity in order to consume more of the other commodity.  

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Targeting Consumers Based on Age in Tourism and Hospitality Essay

Targeting Consumers Based on Age in Tourism and Hospitality - Essay Example There are also social impacts of tourism. These factors include condition of the local and regional economy, level of development of the tourism destination and the level of attachment of the local community (Fredline et al., 2006, p.2). In these contexts business organisations involved in the tourism and hospitality business try to put greater emphasis on social and cultural factors in affecting tourism. Demographic profiling and changes in demographic structure of the country under consideration is an important aspect in this regard where different age groups are targeted for the development of the tourism business (Fredline et al., 2006,, 27). This paper is aimed at providing the critical analysis of is it time to ditch demographic profiling, or is it more important than ever in the digital era? Demographic profiling and tourism and hospitality: Large number of tourist places is present in the world. These tourist places are providing different types of products and services to the visitors to attract them. These divergences give tourists large variety in their choice of tourist places in the world. ... Therefore, in the markets for tourism and hospitality motivation of tourists is very important for the purpose of identifying the markets and also for the development of the business perspectives. There are various studies conducted on these concepts which are emphasised as â€Å"Push† and â€Å"Pull† factors. The â€Å"Push† factors are responsible for taking potential tourists away from their home. On the contrary, â€Å"Pull† factors are responsible for attracting these tourists to the tourist destinations. In this context, various other factors, such as beaches and accommodation, historical as well as cultural resources of different tourist places also play significant roles in the development of the tourism and hospitality business. These factors again affect the motivation of the tourists to travel in different places in the world. Various factors have been identifies by researchers in the context of increasing the motivation of the tourists to visit different places all across the globe. These factors have greatly been used or applied by the business organisations which are involved in the tourism business. Among the â€Å"Push† factors there are various internal factors which include desire for rest or relaxation, desire for making adventurous trips, escapes and health etc. These factors are said to affect the motivation of the people to conduct tours to different tourist places (Jonsson and Devonish, 2008, pp.399-400). Socio-demographic factors affect the attitude of the residents of a place towards tourism marketing (Kwon, 2008, pp.70-71). For example, changes in the demographic profile of the backpackers are affecting the demand for these in New Zealand (Richards and Wilson, 2004). In different tourist palace of Brazil also these

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Multicultural Education (7) Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Multicultural Education (7) - Coursework Example What surprised me about multicultural education is that the cultural background of a teacher and students can affect the learning process. According to Salili and Hoosain (2001), "Teachers and students alike have their own cultural backgrounds, values, customs, perception and prejudices. These cultural characteristics play an important role in teaching and learning situations and can have substantial effects on our learning and behavior" (p. 9). The fact that some teachers may harbor prejudiced opinions on learners is surprising to me. In my opinion, a teacher ought to expect the best of his or her students regardless of their cultural backgrounds. Salili and Hoosain (2001) reiterate that methodical investigations conducted in the past have shown that teachers beliefs about their students have an impacts on performance. A good example as cited by Salili and Hoosain (2001) is the fact that some may have stereotypes that African American students perform poorly as compared to White Ame rican students. The new insights I have had as a result of this class include the importance of conducting proper training to teachers on multicultural education before they can train students. It is important for teachers to have optimistic mindsets in regard to cultural differences characteristic of their students. Being considerate and respectful of different cultural aspects especially in regard to religion and race can have an effect on the overall performance of the students in the classroom (Ghosh, 2011). My main challenge was in relation to communication barrier. Language according to Salili and Hoosain (2001) is one of the factors that define cultures. It is difficult to communicate to students or people whose language is different from mine. As an example , a Chinese student will have to learn English if he wishes to enroll in an American school. However, accent can still be a challenge for teachers. Students performance is dependent on whether the

Saturday, September 21, 2019

The prevalence of bullying Essay Example for Free

The prevalence of bullying Essay Bullying among the children is found to typically occur at school or during their way to the school. As children do not have an option of changing the environment by not being in the school, most of them are unable to avoid bullying. A study conducted by US Department of Education and Justice in 1999 indicated that almost 1 million students (4%) who are aged between 12 and 18 years reported fear of being attacked or harmed in the school vicinity. see more:speeches about bullying About 5% reported that they avoided one or more places in the school wile 13% reported that they were targets of language of hate. The National Threat Assessment Center found that more than two thirds of the attackers involved in 37 shootings did the attack for taking revenge for incidents in their lives when they felt persecuted, bullied, threatened, attacked or injured by others. It was found that exposure to bullying at school played a major role in motivating most of the perpetrators to take up violence. (AMA, 2002) Studies conducted by Olweus in Norway and Sweden with 150,000 students who are from grades one to nine indicated that 15% of the students reported of being involved in bully or victim problems several times within a three to five month period. About 9 percentage of the students reported that they had been bullied by their peers several times and about 7 percentage of the students indicated that they bullied others. About 2 percentage of students reported that they were bullied as well as they bullied other students. Studies in Europe and United States have indicated higher level of bullying among the children and the youth. In a study that involved 6,500 students who are between the 4th grade and the 6th grade in South Carolina, about 23 percentage of the students reported of being bullied several times during the three months and 9 percent reported of being victim of very frequent bullying, which was qualified as once a week or more. About one in five reported that they bully other students several times during the period of the study. A study conducted by Nansel with representation of about 15,600 students from 6th to 10th grades provided similar results. Seventeen percent of the students studied indicated that they bullied sometimes during the school term and 19 percent reported bullying others more often. Six percent of the full sample reported both bullying and having been bullied. Many studied have found that the rates of bullying decrease steadily through the elementary grades such as the study conducted by Melton, Nansel shows. A study conducted by Olweus on about 10,000 Norwegian studies indicated that the rates of victimisation were twice as high among the 4th grade students when compared to the 10th grade. Nansel found that about one quarter of the students in the 6th grade reported being bullied during the current school term which was less than one tenth of the 10th graders. (AMA, 2002).

Friday, September 20, 2019

Application And Use Of Complex Numbers

Application And Use Of Complex Numbers HISTORY OF COMPLEX NUMBERS:- Complex numbers were first conceived and defined by the Italian mathematician Gerolamo Cardano, who called them fictitious, during his attempts to find solutions to cubic equations. This ultimately led to the fundamental theorem of algebra, which shows that with complex numbers, a solution exists to every polynomial equation of degree one or higher. Complex numbers thus form an algebraically closed field, where any polynomial equation has a root. The rules for addition, subtraction and multiplication of complex numbers were developed by the Italian mathematician Rafael Bombelli. A more abstract formalism for the complex numbers was further developed by the Irish mathematician William Rowan Hamilton. COMPLEX NUMBER INTERPRETATION:- A number in the form of x+iy where x and y are real numbers and i = is called a complex number. Let z= x+iy X is called real part of z and is denoted by R (z) Y is called imaginary part of z and is denoted by I (z) CONJUGATE OF A COMPLEX NUMBER: A pair of complex numbers x+iy and x-iy are said to be conjugate of each other. PROPERTIES OF COMPLEX NUMBERS ARE:- 1) If + = + then = 2) Two complex numbers + and + are said to be equal If R (+) = R ( +) I (+) = I ( +) 3) Sum of the two complex numbers is ( +) +( + = (+ ) + (+) 4) Difference of two complex numbers is ( +) ( + = () + () 5) Product of two complex numbers is ( +) ( + = +( ) 6) Division of two complex numbers is = + 7) Every complex number can be expressed in terms of r (cosÃŽÂ ¸ + sinÃŽÂ ¸) R (x+) = r cosÃŽÂ ¸ I (x+) = r sinÃŽÂ ¸ r = and ÃŽÂ ¸ = REPRESENTATION OF COMPLEX NUMBERS IN PLANE The set of complex numbers is two-dimensional, and a coordinate plane is required to illustrate them graphically. This is in contrast to the real numbers, which are one-dimensional, and can be illustrated by a simple number line. The rectangular complex number plane is constructed by arranging the real numbers along the horizontal axis, and the imaginary numbers along the vertical axis. Each point in this plane can be assigned to a unique complex number, and each complex number can be assigned to a unique point in the plane. Modulus and Argument of a complex number: The number r = is called modulus of x+ and is written by mod (x+) or ÃŽÂ ¸ = is called amplitude or argument of x+ and is written by amp (x+) or arg (x+) Application of imaginary numbers: For most human tasks, real numbers (or even rational numbers) offer an adequate description of data. Fractions such as à ¢Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬  and à ¢Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ º are meaningless to a person counting stones, but essential to a person comparing the sizes of different collections of stones. Negative numbers such as à ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â‚¬â„¢3 and à ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â‚¬â„¢5 are meaningless when measuring the mass of an object, but essential when keeping track of monetary debits and credits. Similarly, imaginary numbers have essential concrete applications in a variety of sciences and related areas such as signal processing, control theory, electromagnetism, quantum mechanics, cartography, vibration analysis, and many others. APPLICATION OF COMPLEX NO IN ENGINEERING:- Control Theory In control theory, systems are often transformed from the time domain to the frequency domain using the Laplace transform. The systems poles and zeros are then analyzed in the complex plane. The root locus, Nyquist plot, and Nichols plot techniques all make use of the complex plane. In the root locus method, it is especially important whether the poles and zeros are in the left or right half planes, i.e. have real part greater than or less than zero. If a system has poles that are in the right half plane, it will be unstable, all in the left half plane, it will be stable, on the imaginary axis, it will have marginal stability. If a system has zeros in the right half plane, it is a nonminimum phase system. Signal analysis Complex numbers are used in signal analysis and other fields for a convenient description for periodically varying signals. For given real functions representing actual physical quantities, often in terms of sines and cosines, corresponding complex functions are considered of which the real parts are the original quantities. For a sine wave of a given frequency, the absolute value |z| of the corresponding z is the amplitude and the argument arg(z) the phase. If Fourier analysis is employed to write a given real-valued signal as a sum of periodic functions, these periodic functions are often written as complex valued functions of the form where à Ã¢â‚¬ ° represents the angular frequency and the complex number z encodes the phase and amplitude as explained above. Improper integrals In applied fields, complex numbers are often used to compute certain real-valued improper integrals, by means of complex-valued functions. Several methods exist to do this; see methods of contour integration. Residue theorem The residue theorem in complex analysis is a powerful tool to evaluate path integrals of meromorphic functions over closed curves and can often be used to compute real integrals as well. It generalizes the Cauchy and Cauchys integral formula. The statement is as follows. Suppose U is a simply connected open subset of the complex plane C, a1,,an are finitely many points of U and f is a function which is defined and holomorphic on U \ {a1,,an}. If ÃŽÂ ³ is a rectifiable curve in U which doesnt meet any of the points ak and whose start point equals its endpoint, then Here, Res(f,ak) denotes the residue of f at ak, and n(ÃŽÂ ³,ak) is the winding number of the curve ÃŽÂ ³ about the point ak. This winding number is an integer which intuitively measures how often the curve ÃŽÂ ³ winds around the point ak; it is positive if ÃŽÂ ³ moves in a counter clockwise (mathematically positive) manner around ak and 0 if ÃŽÂ ³ doesnt move around ak at all. In order to evaluate real integrals, the residue theorem is used in the following manner: the integrand is extended to the complex plane and its residues are computed (which is usually easy), and a part of the real axis is extended to a closed curve by attaching a half-circle in the upper or lower half-plane. The integral over this curve can then be computed using the residue theorem. Often, the half-circle part of the integral will tend towards zero if it is large enough, leaving only the real-axis part of the integral, the one we were originally interested Quantum mechanics The complex number field is relevant in the mathematical formulation of quantum mechanics, where complex Hilbert spaces provide the context for one such formulation that is convenient and perhaps most standard. The original foundation formulas of quantum mechanics the Schrà ¶dinger equation and Heisenbergs matrix mechanics make use of complex numbers. The quantum theory provides a quantitative explanation for two types of phenomena that classical mechanics and classical electrodynamics cannot account for: Some observable physical quantities, such as the total energy of a blackbody, take on discrete rather than continuous values. This phenomenon is called quantization, and the smallest possible intervals between the discrete values are called quanta (singular: quantum, from the Latin word for quantity, hence the name quantum mechanics.) The size of the quanta typically varies from system to system. Under certain experimental conditions, microscopic objects like atoms or electrons exhibit wave-like behavior, such as interference. Under other conditions, the same species of objects exhibit particle-like behavior (particle meaning an object that can be localized to a particular region of space), such as scattering. This phenomenon is known as wave-particle duality. Application of complex number in Computer Science. 1) Arithmetic and logic in computer system Arithmetic and Logic in Computer Systems provides a useful guide to a fundamental subject of computer science and engineering. Algorithms for performing operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division in digital computer systems are presented, with the goal of explaining the concepts behind the algorithms, rather than addressing any direct applications. Alternative methods are examined, and explanations are supplied of the fundamental materials and reasoning behind theories and examples. 2) Recticing Software engineering in 21st century This technological manual explores how software engineering principles can be used in tandem with software development tools to produce economical and reliable software that is faster and more accurate. Tools and techniques provided include the Unified Process for GIS application development, service-based approaches to business and information technology alignment, and an integrated model of application and software security. Current methods and future possibilities for software design are covered. In Electrical Engineering: The voltage produced by a battery is characterized by one real number (called potential), such as +12 volts or à ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â‚¬â„¢12 volts. But the AC voltage in a home requires two parameters. One is a potential, such as 120 volts, and the other is an angle (called phase). The voltage is said to have two dimensions. A 2-dimensional quantity can be represented mathematically as either a vector or as a complex number (known in the engineering context as phasor). In the vector representation, the rectangular coordinates are typically referred to simply as X and Y. But in the complex number representation, the same components are referred to as real and imaginary. When the complex number is purely imaginary, such as a real part of 0 and an imaginary part of 120, it means the voltage has a potential of 120 volts and a phase of 90 °, which is physically very real. Application in electronics engineering Information that expresses a single dimension, such as linear distance, is called a scalar quantity in mathematics. Scalar numbers are the kind of numbers students use most often. In relation to science, the voltage produced by a battery, the resistance of a piece of wire (ohms), and current through a wire (amps) are scalar quantities. When electrical engineers analyzed alternating current circuits, they found that quantities of voltage, current and resistance (called impedance in AC) were not the familiar one-dimensional scalar quantities that are used when measuring DC circuits. These quantities which now alternate in direction and amplitude possess other dimensions (frequency and phase shift) that must be taken into account. In order to analyze AC circuits, it became necessary to represent multi-dimensional quantities. In order to accomplish this task, scalar numbers were abandoned and complex numbers were used to express the two dimensions of frequency and phase shift at one time. In mathematics, i is used to represent imaginary numbers. In the study of electricity and electronics, j is used to represent imaginary numbers so that there is no confusion with i, which in electronics represents current. It is also customary for scientists to write the complex number in the form a + jb. In electrical engineering, the Fourier transform is used to analyze varying voltages and currents. The treatment of resistors, capacitors, and inductors can then be unified by introducing imaginary, frequency-dependent resistances for the latter two and combining all three in a single complex number called the impedance. (Electrical engineers and some physicists use the letter j for the imaginary unit since i is typically reserved for varying currents and may come into conflict with i.) This approach is called phasor calculus. This use is also extended into digital signal processing and digital image processing, which utilize digital versions of Fourier analysis (and wavelet analysis) to transmit, compress, restore, and otherwise process digital audio signals, still images, and video signals. Introduce the formula E = I à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Z where E is voltage, I is current, and Z is impedance. Complex numbers are used a great deal in electronics. The main reason for this is they make the whole topic of analyzing and understanding alternating signals much easier. This seems odd at first, as the concept of using a mix of real and imaginary numbers to explain things in the real world seem crazy!. . To help you get a clear picture of how theyre used and what they mean we can look at a mechanical example We can now reverse the above argument when considering a.c. (sine wave) oscillations in electronic circuits. Here we can regard the oscillating voltages and currents as side views of something which is actually rotating at a steady rate. We can only see the real part of this, of course, so we have to imagine the changes in the other direction. This leads us to the idea that what the oscillation voltage or current that we see is just the real portion of a complex quantity that also has an imaginary part. At any instant what we see is determined by a phase angle which varies smoothly with time. We can now consider oscillating currents and voltages as being complex values that have a real part we can measure and an imaginary part which we cant. At first it seems pointless to create something we cant see or measure, but it turns out to be useful in a number of ways. 1) It helps us understand the behaviour of circuits which contain reactance (produced by capacitors or inductors) when we apply a.c. signals. 2) It gives us a new way to think about oscillations. This is useful when we want to apply concepts like the conservation of energy to understanding the behaviour of systems which range from simple a mechanical pendulums to a quartz-crystal oscillator. Applications in Fluid Dynamics In fluid dynamics, complex functions are used to describe potential flow in two dimensions. Fractals. Certain fractals are plotted in the complex plane, e.g. the Mandelbrot set Fluid Dynamics and its sub disciplines aerodynamics, hydrodynamics, and hydraulics have a wide range of applications. For example, they are used in calculating forces and moments on aircraft, the mass flow of petroleum through pipelines, and prediction of weather patterns. The concept of a fluid is surprisingly general. For example, some of the basic mathematical concepts in traffic engineering are derived from considering traffic as a continuous fluids. Relativity In special and general relativity, some formulas for the metric on spacetime become simpler if one takes the time variable to be imaginary. (This is no longer standard in classical relativity, but is used in an essential way in quantum field theory.) Complex numbers are essential to spinors, which are a generalization of the tensors used in relativity. Applied mathematics In differential equations, it is common to first find all complex roots r of the characteristic equation of a linear differential equation and then attempt to solve the system in terms of base functions of the form f(t) = ert. In Electromagnetism: Instead of taking electrical and magnetic part as a two different real numbers, we can represent it as in one complex number IN Civil and Mechanical Engineering: The concept of complex geometry and Argand plane is very much useful in constructing buildings and cars. This concept is used in 2-D designing of buildings and cars. It is also very useful in cutting of tools. Another possibility to use complex numbers in simple mechanics might be to use them to represent rotations.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Family Life is Good for You :: Exploratory Essays Research Papers

Family Life is Good for You Marriage and the family continue to weaken in a number of countries. In Canada, close to 1.2 million couples were living in a common-law relationship in 2001, up 20% from 1995, the Globe and Mail newspaper reported July 11, 2002. By contrast, the number of married couples increased just 3%, to 6.4 million from 6.2 million, over the same period. The figures come from Statistics: Canada's General Social Survey, which collected information on relationship ties, marital splits and new unions. In 2001, almost 90% of Canadian men and women aged 50 to 69 had started their conjugal life through marriage. But among men and women aged 30 to 39, the study found that fully 40% were expected to choose a common-law relationship as their first union. For women aged 20 to 29, the percentage is estimated to reach 53%. The appeal of marriage has dropped most significantly in traditionally Catholic Quebec. There, only 26% of women aged 30 to 39 are expected to choose marriage to start their conjugal lives. One-third of women in Quebec had married their common-law partner at the time of the survey, compared with 59% of women in the other provinces. The Canadian situation mirrors England's situation. On Nov. 26, 2001, the Telegraph revealed that government statistics show that the number of cohabiting couples in England and Wales has reached more than 1.5 million, with four in 10 children now born outside marriage, compared with one in 10 in the 1970s. The number of couples living together is expected to double over the next 20 years. Ireland too has seen big changes in family structures, the Irish Independent observed May 20, 2002. In 1994, one in every four children was born outside marriage. Now, more than one in every three children is born to single mothers and the rate of first births to unmarried mothers is increasing at 20 times the rate of first births to married women. The Irish Independent cited a study titled "Family Formation in Ireland" by Helen Russell and Tony Fahey that looked at cases of non-marital births and followed them up five years later. They found that only half the children born outside marriage between 1993-1997 were in a two-parent situation by 1997.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Comparing Social Class in Baby of the Family and Black Girl Lost Essay

Social Class in Baby of the Family and Black Girl Lost      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Socioeconomic indicators such as education, income, and occupation are measures of social class (Social World). The novels Baby of the Family (Ansa, 1989), and Black Girl Lost (Goines, 1973) are examined to determine the intricate role one's environment plays in dictating the type of life one leads. "The class you are born into and raised in, class is your understanding of the world and where you fit in. It's composed of ideas, behavior, attitudes, values, and language . . ." (Social World). The contrast will analyze the affect assimilation, resistance, and the environment has on social ranking.    "Ratios of people of color, as well as women, are often much lower in socioeconomic status" (Social World. In Black Girl Lost, Goines' Sandra is born to a dysfunctional family in dismal surroundings. She is a product of a single parent home of which is headed by her mother, Sandie. According to research, women who are heads of single parent homes tend to incur increased stress, lack of social support, and financial strain (Social World). These factors could be arguably what drove Sandie to retreat into alcoholism. It is the common belief that the environmental situation one is born into is replicated. Sandy desperately avoided any comparison to her mother to dispel the cycle. "I just don't like for anyone to call me Sandie. That's my mother's name, and I don't want to use her name no way" (Lost 31).    In Baby of the Family, Ansa's Lena, the youngest child of a middle class family, is born into a life of privilege with all the advantages of wealth. The novels contrast by giving an account from either side of the spectrum; growing up privileged verses gr... ... that one is born into greatly affects social class in society. The strong contrasts between Lena and Sandra's situation show how assimilation calls for the abandonment of old lifestyles and conformity to the mainstream ideals. Environmental surroundings, ethnicity, birth, and the degree of assimilation all affect where one will end up in regards to socioeconomic ranking.       Works Cited Goines, Donald. Black Girl Lost. Los Angeles, California: Holloway House Publishing Company, 1973. Ansa, Tina McElroy. Baby of the Family. San Diego: Harcourt Brace & Company, 1989. Graham, Laurence Otis. Our Kind of People. New York: First Harper Perennial, 2000. Salins, Peter D. Reason Magazine On Line 1997. Brown Nathan, et al., Living in a Social World 1998.

jumping Essay examples -- essays research papers

Carthage Goes to War with Rome From the middle of the 3rd century to the middle of the 2nd century BC, Carthage was engaged in a series of wars with Rome. These wars, known as the Punic Wars, ended in the complete defeat of Carthage by Rome. The most prominent figure of the Punic war s was General Hannibal of Pheonician Carhtage. During these wars, it is likely that the colonizing expeditions of the Carthaginians were supported by many emigrants from the Phoenician homeland. Hannibal (b. 247 BC, North Africa--d. c. 183-181, Libyssa, Bithynia), Phoenician Carthaginian general, one of the great military leaders of antiquity, who commanded the Carthaginian forces against Rome in the Second Punic War (218-201 BC). Early life Hannibal was the son of the great Carthaginian general Hamilcar Barca. According to Polybius and Livy, the main Latin sources for his life, Hannibal was taken to Spain by his father and at an early age was made to swear eternal hostility to Rome. From the death of his father in 229/228 until his own death c. 183, Hannibal's life was one of constant struggle against the Roman republic. His earliest commands were given to him in the Carthaginian province of Spain by Hasdrubal, son-in-law and successor of Hamilcar; and it is clear that he emerged as a successful officer, for, on the assassination of Hasdrubal in 221 BC, the army proclaimed him, at the age of 26, its commander in chief, and the Carthaginian government quickly ratified his field appointment. Hannibal immediately turned himself to the consolidation of the Punic hold on Spain. He married a Spanish princess, Imilce, then began to conquer various Spanish tribes. He fought against the Olcades and captured their capital, Althaea; quelled the Vaccaei in the northwest; and in 221, making the seaport Cartagena (Carthage Nova, the capital of Carthaginian Spain) his base, won a resounding victory over the Carpetani in the region of the Tagus River. In 219 BC Hannibal made an attack on Saguntum, an independent Iberian city south of the Ebro River. In the treaty between Rome and Carthage subsequent to the First Punic War (264-241), the Ebro had been set as the northern limit of Carthaginian influence in the Iberian Peninsula. Saguntum was indeed south of the Ebro, but the Romans had "friendship" (though perhaps not an actual treaty) with the city and regarded the Carthagin... ...arthage unopposed (AD 533). Carthage, after its capture by the Arabs in 705, was totally eclipsed by the new town of Tunis. Though Roman Carthage was destroyed, much of its remains can be traced, including the outline of many fortifications and an aqueduct. The former Byrsa area was adorned with a large temple dedicated to Juno, Jupiter, and Minerva, and near it stood a temple to Asclepius. Also on the Byrsa site stood an open-air portico, from which the finest Roman sculptures at Carthage have survived. Additional remains of the Roman town include an odeum, another theatre constructed by Hadrian, an amphitheatre modeled on the Roman Colosseum, numerous baths and temples, and a circus. The Christian buildings within the city, with the exception of a few Vandal structures, are all Byzantine. The largest basilica was rebuilt in the 6th century on the site of an earlier one. Churches probably existed during the 3rd and 4th centuries, but of these no traces remain. The ancient Phoenician language survived in use as a vernacular in some of the smaller cities of North Africa at least until the time of St Augustine, bishop of Hippo (5th century AD). Source: Encyclopedia Britannica.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Dear Sahara Shadow Knights: The Unsung Hero’s

Chapter One: Sweat and Blood The stars twinkled with ferocity as I stared at them through the window of my room, the light of the moon brightened up my room with a natural glow. My face was milky white, and my armor glowed with a white aura, in this natural light show the moon provided. I sighed at the vast emptiness of space and continued to stare into the distance with the dazed stare I was all but famous for. I heard a knocking on my door that echoed throughout every corner of my room. A voice boomed out over the residual echo of the knocking â€Å"Jesse, Jess are you there, we're late for our training† I once again sighed at the deep dismal abyss that laid in front of me. I got out of my seat and stretched my arms up in the air. The voice and knocking continued â€Å"Jesse, answer me are you there!† I brought my hand to my forehead and slowly dragged it down. I replied with a hint of anger in my voice â€Å"Yes I am here, and I told you its ShadowWolf now, that is my chosen Knight name.† The voice replied with a sense of sarcasm hindering in it â€Å"Yes your knightness, but hey if you ever wish to BE one you should get you arse out here and get to the training room like we were supposed to be.† The voice stopped temporarily then flared up again with loud haste â€Å"Ten minutes ago!!! the master will be very angry!† The voice stopped and the silence was quickly followed by hard sound of hollow foot steps running down the hall. I made my way to the door slowly, whistling a low and sweet and sweet tune that matched perfectly with the milky white light that softly filled the room. I pressed the button and the door flew open with a loud swhooch. The sound echoed down the empty metal halls. I stepped forward down the hall with the carefree speed of a child going to school. My long journey down the metal halls had brought me to a large grey door, above it laid ever so carefully the words â€Å"Training Room†. I pushed the door open all the time whistling the tune I had begun in my room so far back. Everyone in the room drew silent as I walked past them, a large robed man stared at me with a dismal grin of disappointment. He shook his head in a negative fashion as he said to me â€Å"Your late again, Mr Jesse. You know if you keep this up you wont reach knight level.† I looked down at my arm and brushed some dirt off my suit and replied â€Å"Sorry masters, some things came up. You know?† The master replied to me with anger â€Å"That is no excuse, if you wish to become a great knight like your father you need to straighten up, and fly right for there will be a time that comes you will wish you had.† I lowered my head in shame, and replied with sincerity â€Å"I'm sorry master, I truly am.† The master sighed and stared at me with a subsided rage â€Å"Get into position, and then we may continue.† My training ensued, numerous drills of both physical and mental variety of which left me exaughsted and sweaty. I Panted for air and rested my hands on me knees as I bent over to catch my breathe. I looked at the ground below me and the metal glistened with my sweat provided a reflection of myself. I was a young man, full bodied face with my hair auburn red, my eyes were mud brown, and my aftershave left me with a rugged look. The armor I wore was a dark black decorative vest the white flaps that came down from this vest synchronized their movements with my panting, under this was my shirt, soft and warm on the body with white scaled sleeves that reflected any light that touched their polished surface, below this was my gloves bulgy and black they stood out next to my white sleeves as a flame stands out in front of the dark, adjacent to this was my skirt it was black as space with triangles of white at the bottom and top, and it all was held together by my black boots polished to a shine that was unparalleled to others in the class. My panting continued with no end in sight, a student came behind me and slapped me on the back. â€Å"Haha, suck it up man were not even done yet.† I tried to form my words to say something ,but nothing ,but panting came out. I raised my hand and wiped the sweat from my forehead that had been dripping down forming a fairly large puddle below me. At that moment a large sound pierced my ears with the high-pitched scream that made me fall over into my puddle of sweat. I pushed my aching body up and spit on the floor as I dragged my hand over my face to get rid of the sweat. â€Å"What the heck is that† I yelled over the sound The master stared at us with serious stare, he mouth slowly opened to say â€Å"It's the alarm. We are under attack† The loud simultaneous yelp of â€Å"what† filled the room to be quickly white washed with the alarms high-pitched scream. The master slowly walked to the other side of the room where a small black box sat on the wall. The master pushed the buttons with the speed of a huurton as a section of the wall swung open to reveal an array of weapons and backpacks. â€Å"Get geared up and ready, this is what we all have been training for† His words filled the room and for a moment seemed to be the only things I could hear. I panted furiously and coughed rapidly. Rose up from my bent over position with the shaking slowness of a person that just got pummeled with a stun baton. We all ran towards the room as the alarm seemed to grow louder with each yelp. The room lay filled with Long Vibro Axes, the glare of light that reflected off of them blinded me as I slowly made my way in. I grabbed an Axe and rushed out of the room and fell back into the formation the class was in as I had entered. The sound of ion cannons and TIE engines filled the room and overpowered the alarms loud noise. The master made his way slowly across the room as if nothing was happening. The master then stopped 10 feet in front of us all and smiled with a wicked grin. He raised his arm slowly and pointed at one half of the class, he motioned them to take the exit to the right. The students did a salute and rushed out of the room, all armed with pikes and pistols. He pointed at our half now and motioned them to the left exit. He then walked towards me, he rubbed his eyes and little then set his hand on my shoulder. â€Å"Lets just hope you learned enough.† I looked at him with a confused glare, he laughed and motioned at the left exit again. I was now running down the hall the sounds of my footsteps were all but unheard under the yelp of the alarms screaming every second, my body was still aching from training, and my leg wobbly from the idea of the battle that laid ahead. My foot stumbled to the side and balance became harder to maintain, I continued running until my foot tripped over what felt like a pike. My body flew forward and spun to the side a little, my body hit the floor in one big boom, and I began to tumble forward on the ground, my pike has dislodged from my holster on impact and now spun in the air ahead of me hitting the walls causing sparks to flare in its wake. I finally stopped when I hit something, the sound of a splash boomed in my ears, my hair now filled with a cold liquid splashed. I slowly got up and grabbed the back of my head to help soften the pain that now overwhelmed me. I felt something squish in my hair as I pressed down, I quickly brought it to my face to reveal blood soaking over my hand. I quickly turned around to see a puddle of blood leading up to a stormtrooper whose neck was half way cut off. I panted fast and licked my lips, the sweat that lay dormant now began to drip into the puddle and mix with the blood, this mixture of sweat and blood made my stomach churn as it continued to spread out on the ground.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Chinese Manufacturer Opens Assembly Plant in Europe

When I was looking for car manufacturers that have opened up assembly plants in Eastern Europe, I stumbled upon some very interesting articles with information I haven’t heard about before. The article of Spiegel, which is a highly reputable German newspaper, is about the Chinese car manufacturer ‘’Great Wall Motors’’ which has opened an assembly plant in Bahovitsa, Bulgaria recently in 2012. When I read this, I immediately realized that this process normally is the other way around, European car manufacturers who move their assembly plants to China due to lower labor costs.But in this article it depicts upon the opening of an assembly plant in Europe by a Chinese car manufacturer. As I kept reading the article I more or less understood why the Chinese manufacturer is making this move. Great Wall Motors is not the first Chinese car manufacturing company that wanted to open up assembly plants in Europe. There were several others; however they have fai led to meet stringent European safety standards.Other Chinese carmakers are also expanding into Europe, as they are buying assembly plants of European car manufacturers to improve the quality of their cars and therefore to meet the stringent European safety standards. This is a way for those Chinese car manufacturers to make progress in quality. So first of all, why in Europe? By producing in Europe, the cars that are produced no longer have to be exported from China to Europe and thus Great Wall Motors is circumventing EU import taxes and tariffs.Therefore, the cars that are produced in Europe are meant to be sold in the European market. This saves Great Wall Motors a lot of money. But then a second question arises; where in Europe? Great Wall Motors did not choose Bulgaria as location for their assembly plants because of its geographical location, but rather for their cheap labor. Bulgaria is the poorest country in the European Union, and therefore is the most attractive location to open an assembly plant because it also has the lowest wages and taxes.However, the labor force is considered as well educated and therefore ensures high productivity levels and operational performance. Another factor that made Great Wall Motors to relocate to Europe, is the fact that wages in China for factory workers have been rising the last few years, and that other car manufacturers have been relocating their assembly plants to countries in Eastern Europe to gain a more competitive edge in the European market. At first, they plan to sell its cars in Eastern Europe and expand later on into other EU countries.Another factor they do not mention in the Article but in my opinion is also highly relevant for this topic is the EU economic crisis. Due to the economic crisis, many people have lost their jobs and therefore have less money to spend. This can be seen as another reason why Great Wall Motors went to Europe because this is a way they can market their cheaper cars to the Euro pean consumers who are very price sensitive due to the economic crisis. This is an opportunity for foreign car manufacturers in general.To conclude, the tables have turned as it used to be European car manufacturers opening up assembly plants in China, and now it is the Chinese car manufacturers opening up assembly plants in Europe. This article resembles the reasons why this change has occurred and why Great Wall Motors has moved their production to the European continent. Article http://www. spiegel. de/international/business/cheap-labor-in-bulgaria-chinese-open-first-car-plant-in-europe-a-816851. html

Sunday, September 15, 2019

I Used to Live Here Once by Jean Rhys †Analysis Essay

To what lengths will someone ever remember their home and recognize the things they’ve once known? Stories have been used throughout the ages to not only create a tale that can cause to the reader great imagination and wonders, it is also common for them to hide several meanings and twists to the adventure. Through the portraits of her life, and the perils of her adventures, Jean Rhys’ has incorporated many of the paths of her life into the illustrations she had developed into short stories. These representation of her original life represent the strong and key points of her journey where she had felt abundances of emotions; many of which were transcribed into very short tales such as ‘I Use To Live Here Once’ where you may notice the precision on the details, the excess of description on the author’s view and imagination, as well as the direct correlation with herself. The following story entitled as mentioned, tells the tale of a woman returning back to a distant memory, and finds two mysterious figures that will enlighten her truth. Further opinions will be referred to as a base to the literal analysis of the story, in order to understand the feelings of the author. Jean Rhys’ includes a particular genre and writing style in this short story that is built around her personality, the author’s use of the ending helps to symbolize the connection with her life whilst using specific types of imagery and juxtaposition throughout the story. The story debuts on a quite simple scale with one description leading to another where each receive a thorough scan, to which we may notice several types of similes and metaphors used in order to express the themes and tones of the short story. The gradual increase of the ‘truth’ hidden at the end of the story can be understood as you proceed the reading through the use of these writing techniques; these reverses of ‘meaning’ give away odd particularities throughout the whole story: â€Å"She stopped and looked towards the house that had been added to and painted white. It was strange to see a car standing in front of it. (The New Windmill Book, 1994). In this passage we understand that the main character is familiar with the house to begin with and have noticed several changes, this sets a doubt to the reader where the question is raised on what is the relation between the main character and this house. There have been some interference in her writing due to personal problems work as considered by Castro (2000), these interruptions have caused Jean Rhys’ novels to be highly influenced by her perils, she had reached a period of hiatus in her writing life due to alcoholism and financial status. The story ‘I Used To Live Here Once’ has been written shortly after the author had gone back to Dominica to revisit her home to only find it burnt down and different to what she had once known. Being the only visit she had made back to her hometown, this has affected Jean Rhys’ view of her origin and roots. We understand throughout the story many of the correlation of the story with her life, as in one part where she describes the stepping-stones that the character in the story needed to step on to cross the river (The New Windmill Book, 1994, p. 57). By identifying her events and the ones in the story, we can create a relation between these stones and the several encounters with men that the author had. More relation can be made on the similarities between the main character of the story and Jean Rhys herself, such as the feeling of nostalgia shown throughout the entire narrative, especially when the woman in the story is describing the house and children by the tree. In one piece in the story, the heroin had characterized the sky as â€Å"Glassy†. We may confirm that there are some strong emphasis on this particular part of the story as the description of the sky given by the author releases information on the characters being in between two separate worlds (Brady, 2009); the implications stated behind that gap is her eventual situation as a ghost. Whilst the identification began when the explanation on the magnificent blue day was made, there is a notice on the exaggeration and contradictions between what the women in the story felt as it was immediately followed by the unusual illustration of the sky. Moreover, when identifying the nature of the other descriptions made in the story, this confirms the confrontation with the ‘glassy’ comment of the sky. This interpretation showed very strong emotions released by Jean Rhys as it may reflect some feelings of transparency and a lack of presence to the heroin even though she feels being physically present. Considering her involvement in the tale, many features in the story give up nformation on how does the story reflect on the personality of the author. For instance, by looking at the way she had described the environment surrounding the heroin in this story, we can connect through this some of the descriptions, which are majorly contained of effects of degradation and undetected figures, which have been noticed by the main character. These are several hints in connection to some of the traumas Jean Rhys had experienced in her life, as said by author Maren Linett (2005) â€Å"consider Rhys’s exploration of the dark subject of/in female masochism – not, as has been argued by some critics, as an individual psychological kink from which Rhys suffered†¦Ã¢â‚¬  these traumas has therefore raise more questions on Jean Rhys’ writing influence. Furthermore, her incorporation of the two kids in front of the house shows a lot on what and how the author thinks. As stated by herself in the biography, she finds the color black warm and gay whereas she finds the color white cold and sad (The New Windmill Book, 1994, p. 156) considering that she had lived in Dominica and that this story is taking place there, we can identify some forms of irony as she observes and desribes the skin of the children (Brady, 2009) as most of the Europeans who had been born in there had similar skin. Whilst reading the story once, the ending of the story generates a shock to the reader. There is some is some sort of a build up in this narrative, from one description to another, the descriptions that the woman makes creates images to which can imply on beauty of the day. This implies to the lecturer to reconsider the whole journey that the author had used to create symbolisms with her life. Considering the involvement of Jean Rhys’ life in the story, her point of view is revealed through the use of symbolism, to which readers can interpret the types of feelings that she is having in addition to the ones of the character in the story. From this, the sudden appearance of her death helps the reader understand the different implications of what the heroin felt, thus relaying to the connection with Jean Rhys life. As said by Myranda Grencinger (2012) the use of symbolism in this tale allows the emphasis on the ending, which had transported the theme of the narrative to the eyes of the reader; in addition, it had not only showed but also set the tone of the story. All in all, considering the author’s use of her writing style and techniques, genre and personality, we may conclude that the short story â€Å"I Used To Live Here Once† holds many secrets upon the feelings of the character. She had succeeded to include her particular techniques so that the reader can attempt to understand and reevaluate their view on a story. Whilst using specific types of imagery and juxtaposition throughout the story, Jean Rhys has been able to symbolize the connections with her life, thus showing more to the reader of the correlation between the woman and the author. However, none of these writings would create much sense and order to the story without the use of the ending revealing the true nature of the tale. Therefore, many understandings can be made on the life of the author through reading this narrative – but to which extent can an author always create portraits of their life in stories, and how clear these can be understand will eventually depend on the imagination, styles and adventures of writers such as Jean Rhys.

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Leadership: Theory and Practice Essay

1. Based on the principles of the path-goal theory, what kind of leadership should David exhibit with each of the three running groups? According Northouse the Path-Goal Theory is about how leaders motivate subordinates to accomplish goals (125). Northouse also points out the leadership generates motivation when it increases the number and kinds of payoffs that subordinates achieve from their work. The basic idea behind the Path-Goal Theory is each type of leader behaviors, which are directive, supportive, participative and achievement oriented have a different king of impact on subordinates’ motivation. This simply means that the Path-Goal Theory does not lock leaders into one type of leadership. This theory gives leaders the opportunity to adapt their styles to fit the situation and motivational needs of their subordinates. Based on the analysis of all three groups the Path-Goal Theory would apply different types of leadership behavior. A subordinates characteristics will determine how a leaders behavior is interpreted by subordinates in a given work situation. Some of these characteristics are needs of affiliation, preferences of structure, desires for control, and so forth. In the first group the members or subordinates are mostly runners who have never ran in a marathon before. The main issue of concern for this group is how should they prepare themselves for the New York City marathon. They illustrate this by asking questions like how to do the marathon? how far to run in the training?, What to eat or drink?. Since this particular group lacks experience there is a huge emphasis on self-preparation and high anxiety among the members. I think as president, David should apply the directive style of leadership in this situation because the task characteristics are ambiguous, there is no set of rules or method on how to execute the marathon, also the runners need self-assuring because of their self-doubt to complete the marathon and is this situation very complex. According to Northouse, directive leadership complements the work by providing guidance and psychological structure for subordinates. Overall this group needs a huge amount of guidance because of their limited experience and high emphasis on preparation. Also Northouse clarifies this when he says that for subordinates who are dogmatic and authoritarian and have to work in uncertain situations, directive leadership helps the subordinates by clarifying the goal, making it less ambiguous and the subordinate feels more comfortable when the leader provides a greater sense of certainty in the work setting (129). This in turn gives the runners less anxiety and a clear and direct way to achieve the goal. In the second group, the main issue of concern was how the effects of training would impact their performance and they also wanted assurances from their leader David because they wanted to know if they were properly trained for the New York marathon. This group of runners wanted a lot of feedback from their leader and showed high level of involvement that would affect their performance. The group was concerned with regular training activities and David’s commitment to them. In this case, David should apply the both supportive and participative leadership behavior style. Supportive leadership helps to provide what is missing by nurturing subordinates when they are engaged in tasks that are repetitive and unchallenging. Since the group two runners are going to be doing a lot of training and it can become very repetitive. In this leadership role it require David to be very supportive and his runners because of their efforts to continue this mechanized training for the marathon. Another point is the David can apply participative leadership behavior style because as we know the subordinates want a sense of freedom, control and clarity. They illustrate this by initiating their own self-involvement on how they can be more effective in the marathon by asking questions and requiring a huge amount of feedback from David. In the third group, David should apply the achievement-oriented leadership behavior because the runners in this group are seasoned runners who finished in the top ten in other races. The subordinate characteristics of this group are high expectations and the need to excel. The group has a lot of confidence in their ability to compete and finish well. However, they lacked excitement about running in the New York Event because they were usually concerned with the appropriateness of their training strategy and whether the training would help them to win more races. As a leader, David should challenge his subordinates to perform work at the highest level they can achieve. Norhthouse (2010) says that this leader establishes a high standard of excellence for subordinates and continuous improvement. Northouse also contends that achievement oriented leaders show a high degree of confidence that subordinates are capable of establishing and accomplishing challenging goals (128). In retrospect, David is the president of Mertrocity Striders Track Club and he can use this achievement as a tool to influence his runners since he knows that they are already high achievers. He can solicit his own credibility as a runner and a president of the organization to promote his belief on achieving success as a runner and person of character. 2. What does David have to do to help the runners accomplish their goals? To be an effective leader, David needs to do all of the following: (1) attend to the needs of his subordinates, (2) help subordinates define their goals, and (3) the paths they want to take in reaching the goals. 3. Are there obstacles that David can remove or help runners to confront? When obstacles get in the way, David must help his runners confront them. If obstacles create excessive uncertainty, frustration or threat for his subordinates it is David’s responsibility to remove these obstacles or help them around them. In light of this, removing obstacles will increase a subordinate’s expectation that he or she will be able to get their work done and improve satisfaction. 4. In general, how can David motivate each of the three groups? David can motivate all of the three groups by helping his subordinates reach their goals by directing, guiding and coaching them along the way. This simply means attending to their needs of the group, defining the goals and how the group can reach these goals, clearing the path by removing obstacles to get the work done, and providing support.

Friday, September 13, 2019

Men costume Speech or Presentation Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Men costume - Speech or Presentation Example The men in those times preferred a starched white shirt along with a white waist length linen. The dress shirts used in formal occasions did not have stitched buttons but rather had holes through which the studs could be passed to close the shirt. The collar was attached to shirt and the cufflinks were used to close the cuffs. A bow tie and a hat was used to finish the complete formal outfit in those times. In a less formal occasion a tuxedo would be used by the gentlemen in those times which always had a black tie to go with it. For a business trip the gentlemen in those times used a different type of apparel which consisted of a jacket a trouser and a vest of any colour. These business men preferred a slipknot tie known as ascot rather than a bowtie. The jackets that these people used were longer and roomier and the trousers which they used had cuffs and buttons. Young men going to the college preferred styles of those celebrities who were seen on the screens. The young generation preferred to settle with golfing knickers which were famous in those days along with a loose trouser. The sweaters these young men preferred were V shaped and they usually wore it over dress shirts. In the middle of the 1920s it was also seen that the young men preferred wearing baggy trousers which reached over to their knickers. Along with the trousers they wore jackets which had a front pocket.

Thursday, September 12, 2019

Critically discuss the use of low glycaemic index diets in the Literature review

Critically discuss the use of low glycaemic index diets in the treatment of diabetes mellitus - Literature review Example 2010). The number of individuals suffering from diabetes is increasing and by 2030, the number of patients suffering from the chronic condition is expected to increase to three hundred and sixty million patients worldwide (American Diabetes Association 2012, 64). It is a major world threat as the annual health care expenditures for patients with diabetes is 11.5 percent of all the health care expenditure (Drouin et al. 2013, 68). According to Drouin et al. (2009), the condition has been associated with significant mortality and morbidity accounting for 7 to 9 percent of all deaths resulting from all comorbidities thus; it has become a top health care priority. The literature review focuses on the use of low glycemic index diets in diabetes mellitus treatment. The main reason for diabetes control is normalizing and stabilizing the levels of blood glucose, as glucose control has been linked to a decline of complications associated with the disorder. Common treatment remedies for diabetes include diet and weight control as well as physical activity. If the blood glucose levels remain relatively, high diabetes tables can be administered and in other cases, insulin injections and islets cell transplants are required (Kashikar & Tejaswita 2011, 23). According to Zhang et al. (2010), nutritional factors are key in affecting the blood glucose levels. Despite of the research conducted, there is no any recommended way for optimal diabetes dietary strategy. According to Thomas & Elliott (2009), the improvement in glycemic control that can be achieved through dietary interventions is fundamental in decreasing the diabetic complications, improving life among the affected, minimizing the expenses associated with diabetic medications, as well as increa sing their life expectancy. There are different carbohydrates each with different effects on

Wednesday, September 11, 2019

Mental Process Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 2

Mental Process - Research Paper Example In fact, thinking explores everything, including the bizarre and the impossible. People make sense of all empirical experiences and spiced these with theoretical ideation to recreate realities for innovative decision-making. Most decision-making is products of realities that put human beings either at challenging, confrontational, and transformational experiences. Hence, these pushed them to respond in recreating rational models to transform those obsolete and inaccurate models of perceiving the world. Crook and Gunther (2005) shared the perception that latent experiences can be remodeled and recreated to gain competitive leverage again from this complex social environment through sustained experimentation and trailblazing on new thoughts. Researchers opined that intuition and coming up with new ideas is an opportunity to deconstruct old thoughts and adopt new strategic models for distinctive and practical ends (Crook and Gunther, 2005). Experts opined that cognition is always stimulated by some factors and is acted by numerous variables to inspire a person to respond to or to act on it. The manipulation and discernment of information are simple ways in which people are driven to act and to respond to some incitements. For instance, leaders meet, assess trends, deliberate facts, and come up with recommendations that can be used as a blueprint of actions for situations. The outcomes are first being perceived and expected before it’s actualized to generate desired results. Through this, those who are rationalizing the plan, actions and outcome are more knowledgeable of potential opportunities to explore including the potential and intermittent impact of the action. Businessmen can only competitively leverage if they can rationalize decision-making and adopt innovation for competitive leveraging. Hence, they will delve into new models of thoughts to set their creativity at liberty.

Tuesday, September 10, 2019

Finacial & legal aspecat of procurement Assignment

Finacial & legal aspecat of procurement - Assignment Example nstruction of structures, fixing of electronics and navigation devices, maintenance of auxiliary systems, technical support to engineers and other shipyard services depend on the available specialized labor. Structural developments take the biggest chunk of labor expense followed outfit and furnishings because they are done virtually on a daily basis. Another cost driver is the purchase of materials (Moelmann & Harris, pg30). Fixing of electrical appliances cost the company heavily due to the high cost of purchasing special devices such as adaptors, which are very critical in navigation and propulsion. Materials increase overhead costs due to the ever-changing prices of imported appliances and accessories. The accounting office can hardly obtain a definite estimate of the overhead costs to be incurred on product accessories and appliance in all accounting phase. Most of the purchased materials are imported from Japan and Germany. The fluctuating world prices shift the costs from time to time making it quite impossible to project the actual cost of materials. Propulsion materials have a high depreciation rate due to the busy schedule of the transport company in all the segments in deals in. In shipping and land courier services, the expense is high on oil and engine spare parts. The cost of petrol, gearbox replacements is high and almost a fixed cost because it is the only available method of propulsion. For shipping high capacity, diesel engines are expensive to repair and the oil prices keep rising regardless of the increase in the cost of different engine models. In the last financial period, the company had to purchase more spare parts for the ship engines and 20 more courier vans to serve on the land segment. The overall cost of the company doubled even when the cost of technical support, auxiliary systems, and electrical appliances remained the same. This significantly affected the profit margin going down at its lowest in a decade. Fees and insurance has

Monday, September 9, 2019

Obamas budget plan Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Obamas budget plan - Essay Example Obama’s budget indicates that the country’s deficit will increase this year to its highest post-World War II level, and then gradually decrease over the decade. The article indicates, however, that it will remain at ‘troublesome levels’. Obama argues that his budget will save over $1 trillion by ending the previous administration’s tax cuts and by enacting a three year spending freeze. (the spending freeze won’t include spending on health programs, national security, and veteran’s programs) However, the article indicates that the savings are only, â€Å"one-fifth of the size of the debt that will pile up from now to 2020.† Major areas of change will occur in tax cuts. Large budget spending on military equipment will be supplanted by spending on education and civilian research. Taxes among oil companies and affluent citizens will rise. Small businesses, however, will see large amounts of tax reductions over the next decade. Spending will continue on the proposed health care system and energy infrastructure.. Food and drug research and biomedical technology will also receive increased funding. While NASA’s budget will be further reduced, spending on science will rise as the National Science Foundation will receive, â€Å"$7.4 billion, a nearly 8 percent increase from the budget last year.† While Republicans criticize Obama for the rising levels of debt, he argues that his administration will still maintain its goal of reducing the deficit in half before the end of his term in office. The article indicates that spending will necessarily rise as towards the end of the decade with large amounts of retiring baby boomers. Increasing health costs are greatly centered around the Department of Health and Human Services, and the National Institute of Health, both of which are receiving multi-billion dollar increases in funding. The article contends that a number of Obama’s proposed spending cuts may be difficult to enact in

Sunday, September 8, 2019

Physics in The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Research Paper

Physics in The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment - Research Paper Example This paper discusses the physics involved in the experiment and how it is used to understand the effect of changes in the atmospheric layers on the ozone layer over the Arctic pole. Various parameters like temperature, pressure, etc. have been measured by custom made apparatus like the interferometers, spectrometers, spectrophotometers, etc. Launch- ACE used two major instruments in the mission. While the first instrument was a Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS), the other instrument was a dual optical spectrometer (Bernath, na). It was launched by NASA on August 12, 2003 using a Pegasus XL rocket at 650km above the Earth. The satellite was launched at an angle of 740 and orbited the Earth to cover tropical, mid-latitude and the Polar regions. The satellite operated in the UV-Visible-NIR region of the spectrum with the ACE-FTS being used in the NIR region while the MAESTRO Spectrophotometer was being used over the UV-VIS-NIR region (ACE, 2009). FTS operated in the range of 2-13 microns with a high resolution of 0.02cm-1 and a vertical resolution of 4km to up to 150km. the MAESTRO spectrophotometer operated in the UV-VIS-NIR spectral region of 285-1030nm with a vertical resolution of 1-2 km. ... Apart from this information, the satellite was also used to provide vertical profile information for temperature, pressure and the various molecules and their mixing ratios present in the atmospheric layers (ACE, 2009). Constituents- The primary instruments in the satellite are the FTS and the MAESTRO. The ACE-FTS is a Michelson interferometer with two corner cubes for producing the path difference with an end mirror which increases the path difference. The interference fringes are produced with a diode laser operating at 1500nm which are further Fourier Transformed to give the spectra. It has two detectors operating below 100K. Two imagers, one a Visible imager and other a near-IR imager at 0.525 and 1.02 microns are used to study the atmospheric absorption of aerosols and the clouds in the region. These two wavelengths are used for study as they are free of any absorption by the molecules present in the two layers, particularly the stratosphere (Bernath, 2005, pp25-26). The altitude profile information is sun tracked by detectors with 256x256 pixel sensors and a field view of 30mrad and a signal-to-noise ratio of more than 1000. The MAESTRO uses two spectrographs in the two overlapping windows which are 280-550nm and 500-1030nm with a resolution of 2nm. It is noted that the use of two spectrographs enhances the stray-light performance and enables the simultaneous measurement of two spectral bands at a narrow resolution. It also consists of photodiode detectors and a concave grating with an entrance slit always held horizontal to the sunset and sunrise. It also has a vertical resolution of 1-2km and a signal-to-noise